About Anatomy

Study of general anatomy of structures and organ systems of the human body

Objectives

Goals

The broad goal of the teaching of undergraduate students in Anatomy aims at providing comprehensive knowledge of the gross and microscopic structure and development of human body to provide a basis for understanding the clinical correlation of organs or structures involved and the anatomical basis for the disease presentations.

Objectives

At the end of the course the student shall be able to :

  • Comprehend the normal disposition, clinically relevant interrelationships, functional and cross sectional anatomy of the various structures in the body.
  • Identify the microscopic structure and correlate elementary ultrastructure of various organs and tissues and correlate the structure with the functions as a prerequisite for understanding the altered state in various disease process.
  • Comprehend the basic structure and connections of the central nervous system to analyse the integrative and regulative functions of the organs and systems. He / She shall be able to locate the site of gross lesions according to the deficits encountered.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of the basic principles and sequential development of the organs and systems, recognize the critical stages of development and the effects of common teratogens. He / She shall be able to explain the developmental basis of the major variations and abnormalities.

Course Contents

General Physiology

  • Principles of homeostasis
  • Structure of cell membrane
  • Transport mechanisms
  • Intercellular communications
  • Fluid compartments of the body.

Blood
-   Composition and functions
-   RBC- formation, function and anemia's 
-   WBC- formation, functions and Leukemia's
-   Hemoglobin- synthesis and functions 
-   Blood groups- basis of blood grouping, clinical importance, bloodbanking and      transfusion
-   Haemostasis, anticoagulants

Muscle  and nerve physiology
-   Structure and functions of a neuron and neuralgia
-   Molecular basis of resting membrane and action potential 
-   Transmission of nerve impulse
-   Structure and transmission across neuro-muscular junction
-   Neuro-muscular blocking agents
-   Types and structure of muscle fiber
-   Action potential in different muscle types
-   Molecular basis of muscle contraction
-   Muscular changes during exercise;
-   Properties of xcitable issue.

Renal system
-   Structure and function of nephron
-   Urine formation involving processes of filtration, tubularabsorption, secretion and concentration
-   Structure and function of a Juxta glomerular apparatus
-   Role of renin-angiotensin system
-   Fluid and electrolyte balance and its regulation
-   Innervations of bladder, micturition, abnormalities of micturition
-   Artificial kidney, dialysis and renal transplantation
Renal Function Test                                                                                    

Digestive system
-   Basic structure of Digestive system 
-   functions of 
-   Salivary secretion
-   Gastric secretion
-   Pancreatic secretion
-   Intestinal secretion
-   Bile 
-   Gastro-intestinal hormones-source, regulation and functions
-   Gastro-intestinal movements
-   Pathophysiology of peptic ulcer, Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, vomitting, diarrhoea, constipation

Endocrinology
-   Physiological actions and effect of altered secretion of Pituitary gland, Thyroid gland, Parathyroid gland,
Adrenal gland, Pancreas and hypothalamus
Estimation and assessment of Hormones 

Reproductive system
-   Functions of testis & ovary
-   Spermatogenesis & factors influencing it
-   Menstrual cycle-hormonal, uterine and ovarian changes
-   Physiological changes during pregnancy and lactation 
-   Physiological basis for pubertal changes
-   Physiological effect of sex hormones
-   Contraceptive methods (male and female methods)

Cardiovascular system
-   Properties of cardiac muscle 
-   Conducting system of heart 
-   Haemodynamics of circulatory system
-   Regulation of heart rate and blood pressure and cardiac output 
-   Electrocardiogram-physiological basis and applications.
-   Regional circulation-coronary, cerebral, capillary, foetal and pulmonary circulation
-   Pathophysiology of shock, coronary artery disease, hypertension      
-   Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation
-   Abnormal ECG

Respiratory system
-   Functional anatomy
-   Mechanics of normal respiration
-   Regulation of respiration 
-   Transport of respiratory gases 
-   Lung function test-clinical significance 
-   Principles of artificial respiration, oxygen therapy, acclimatization and decompression sickness.
-   Pathophysiology -hypoxia, cyanosis and asphyxia. 

Central nervous system
-   Organization of nervous system  
-   Functions and properties of synapse, reflex, receptors. 
-   Functions of cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebellum and
    limbic system.
-   Structure and function of reticular activating system, autonomic  nervous
    system
-   Mechanism of maintenance of tone, posture and equilibrium-   
    vestibular apparatus
-   Higher functions (Memory, Learning, Speech)    
-   Pathophysiology of Parkinsonism, section of spinal cord. 
-   EEG and Sleep 
-   Pain and referred pain 

Special senses
-   Functional anatomy of eye                                                                
-   Physiology of image formation, colour vision, refractive errors Visual reflexes-
    pupillary and light reflex
-   Effect of lesion for visual pathway 
-   Pathophysiology of blindness 
-   Functional anatomy ear
-   Mechanism of hearing
-   Pathophysiology of deafness
-   Perception of smell and taste sensation 
-   Pathophysiology of altered smell and taste sensation
-   Auditory & visual evoke potential 

Skin and body temperature regulation
    Mechanism of temperature regulation
    Adaptation to altered temperature (heat and cold) 
    Mechanism of fever, cold injuries and heat stroke.

Physiology of sports, exercise, yoga and   meditation,
    Cardio-respiratory and metabolic adjustments
    Physiological effects of yoga and meditation

Skills

At the end of the course the student shall be able to:
1.Identify and locate all the structures of the body and mark the topography of the living anatomy.
2.Identify the organs and tissues under the microscope.
3.Understand the principles of karyotyping and identify the gross congenital anomalies.
4.Understand the principles of newer imaging techniques like Ultra sound, Computerised Tomography Scan; Interpretation of Plain and contrast X-rays.
5.Understand clinical basis of some common clinical procedures i.e. intramuscular and intravenous injection, lumbar puncture, kidney biopsy etc.

Teaching & Learning methods

1. Lectures - not more than 1/3rd of the total teaching hours.
2. e-mode learning of some of the topics.
3. Small group teaching-such as:
a) Demonstrations.
b) Tutorials.
c) Seminars.
d) Problem Based Learning.
4. Dissection / Prosected parts demonstrations / Instructions on mannequins.
5. Skills Lab with CDs of various stages of dissection.
6. Histology Lab.
7. Surface marking.
8. Imaging anatomy Lab.
9. Visit to the museum.
10. Preparation of scientific article.
11. Preparation of gross anatomy practical drawing book
12. Preparation of histology practical drawing book.

Physiology

Study of normal functions of various body organs, experimental physiology, cellular functions and clinical applications. Objectives At the end of Phase-I & II, the student should be able to:
1. Understand normal disposition, inter relationships, functional and structural anatomy of various organs and their development. He should be able to locate structures of the body and mark topography of living anatomy;
2. Understand and describe normal functions of the all organs of the body and their functional interactions.
3. Understand and describe various functional aspects, at the bio molecular level including metabolic pathways and their regulatory mechanisms.
4. Integrate these learnt subjects to practice of clinical medicine

Course Contents

General Physiology
-   Principles of homeostasis
-   Structure of cell membrane
-   Transport mechanisms 
-   Intercellular communications  
-   Fluid compartments of the body.

Blood
-   Composition and functions
-   RBC- formation, function and anemia's 
-   WBC- formation, functions and Leukemia's
-   Hemoglobin- synthesis and functions 
-   Blood groups- basis of blood grouping, clinical importance, bloodbanking and      transfusion
-   Haemostasis, anticoagulants

Muscle  and nerve physiology
-   Structure and functions of a neuron and neuralgia
-   Molecular basis of resting membrane and action potential 
-   Transmission of nerve impulse
-   Structure and transmission across neuro-muscular junction
-   Neuro-muscular blocking agents
-   Types and structure of muscle fiber
-   Action potential in different muscle types
-   Molecular basis of muscle contraction
-   Muscular changes during exercise;
-   Properties of xcitable issue.

Renal system
-   Structure and function of nephron
-   Urine formation involving processes of filtration, tubularabsorption, secretion and     concentration
-   Structure and function of a Juxta glomerular apparatus
-   Role of renin-angiotensin system
-   Fluid and electrolyte balance and its regulation
-   Innervations of bladder, micturition, abnormalities of micturition
-   Artificial kidney, dialysis and renal transplantation
Renal Function Test                                                                                    

Digestive system
-   Basic structure of Digestive system 
-   functions of 
-   Salivary secretion
-   Gastric secretion
-   Pancreatic secretion
-   Intestinal secretion
-   Bile 
-   Gastro-intestinal hormones-source, regulation and functions
-   Gastro-intestinal movements
-   Pathophysiology of peptic ulcer, Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, vomitting, diarrhoea, constipation

Endocrinology
-   Physiological actions and effect of altered secretion of Pituitary gland, Thyroid gland, Parathyroid gland,
Adrenal gland, Pancreas and hypothalamus
Estimation and assessment of Hormones 

Reproductive system
-   Functions of testis & ovary
-   Spermatogenesis & factors influencing it
-   Menstrual cycle-hormonal, uterine and ovarian changes
-   Physiological changes during pregnancy and lactation 
-   Physiological basis for pubertal changes
-   Physiological effect of sex hormones
-   Contraceptive methods (male and female methods)

Cardiovascular system
-   Properties of cardiac muscle 
-   Conducting system of heart 
-   Haemodynamics of circulatory system
-   Regulation of heart rate and blood pressure and cardiac output 
-   Electrocardiogram-physiological basis and applications.
-   Regional circulation-coronary, cerebral, capillary, foetal   and     pulmonary        circulation
-   Pathophysiology of shock, coronary artery disease, hypertension      
-   Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation
-   Abnormal ECG

Respiratory system
-   Functional anatomy
-   Mechanics of normal respiration
-   Regulation of respiration 
-   Transport of respiratory gases 
-   Lung function test-clinical significance 
-   Principles of artificial respiration, oxygen therapy, acclimatization     and     decompression sickness.
-   Pathophysiology -hypoxia, cyanosis and asphyxia. 

Central nervous system
-   Organization of nervous system  
-   Functions and properties of synapse, reflex, receptors. 
-   Functions of cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebellum and
    limbic system.
-   Structure and function of reticular activating system, autonomic  nervous
    system
-   Mechanism of maintenance of tone, posture and equilibrium-   
    vestibular apparatus
-   Higher functions (Memory, Learning, Speech)    
-   Pathophysiology of Parkinsonism, section of spinal cord. 
-   EEG and Sleep 
-   Pain and referred pain 

Special senses
-   Functional anatomy of eye                                                                
-   Physiology of image formation, colour vision, refractive errors Visual reflexes-
    pupillary and light reflex
-   Effect of lesion for visual pathway 
-   Pathophysiology of blindness 
-   Functional anatomy ear
-   Mechanism of hearing
-   Pathophysiology of deafness
-   Perception of smell and taste sensation 
-   Pathophysiology of altered smell and taste sensation
-   Auditory & visual evoke potential 

Skin and body temperature regulation
    Mechanism of temperature regulation
    Adaptation to altered temperature (heat and cold) 
    Mechanism of fever, cold injuries and heat stroke.

Physiology of sports, exercise, yoga and   meditation,
    Cardio-respiratory and metabolic adjustments
    Physiological effects of yoga and meditation

Skills

A medical student, in Physiology, must be able to perform and interpret following skills:
Haematology
RBC count 
WBC count 
Differential WBC count 
Eosinophil count
Platelet count
Clotting and bleeding time
Blood grouping and cross matching
Interpret peripheral smear - identify
abnormality and anaemia
Calculate various blood indicies

Muscle and nerve physiology
- Properties of nerve and muscle to  bedemonstrated by computer based modules

Reproductive system
Pregnancy test

Cardiovascular system History taking  
Examine peripheral arterial pulse
Record arterial blood pressure using  
sphygmomanometer
Record ECG, identify normal waves,
intervals and pick up abnormalities
Locate the apex beat 
Auscultate the areas of heart, appreciate  heart sound,
Pickup abnormal sounds
Echocardiography

Respiratory system
Perform    spirometry    (computer   spirometer, if available) and interpret the recording to appreciate restrictive and obstructive airway diseases Locate the position of trachea and appreciate its deviation in disease Percuss lung fields to appreciate the  change in note in disease Auscultate lung fields appreciate the normal breath sound and pickup adventitious sounds Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation 

Nervous system
Examination of Sensory system (touch,  pain, pressure and temperature)
Examination of motor system (nutrition, tone, power and co-ordination)
Examination of superficial and deep  reflexes. Examination of cranial nerves (sensory and motor division)
Examination of autonomic nervous system 
EEG, EMG and nerve conduction Studies

Special senses
Acuity of vision (near and distant vision)
Colour vision
Field of vision
Tests for hearing
Test f or smell and taste 
Principle of opthalmoscopy
Optometry
Audiometry

Body temperature and metabolism
Recording body temperature in different location

Teaching & Learning methods

• Structured interactive sessions
• Small group discussion
• Focused group discussion (FGD)
• Practical including demonstrations
• Problem based exercises
• Skill labs
• Video clips
• Written case scenario
• Self learning tools
• Interactive learning
• e-modules

Biochemistry

About Biochemistry Chemical natures, functions, genetics, body fluids both normal and abnormal, molecular level knowledge, latest hi-tech equipments and their use. Objectives

The broad goal of the teaching under-graduate students in biochemistry is to make them understand the scientific basis of the life processes at the molecular level and to orient them towards the application of the knowledge acquired in solving clinical problems.

Course Contents

(A) KNOWLEDGE :
At the end of the course, the student shall be able to :

  1. Describe the molecular and functional organisation of a cell and list its sub-cellular components;
    Delineate structure, function and inter-relationship of biomolecules and consequences of deviation from normal;
    Summarize the fundamental aspects of enzymology and clinical application wherein regulation of enzymatic activity is altered: Describe digestion and assimilation of nutrients and consequently or malnutrition consequences of malnutrition;
    Integrate the various aspects of metabolism and their regulatory pathways;
    Explain the biochemical basis of inherited disorders with their associated sequelae;
    Describe mechanisms involved in maintenance body fluid and pH homeostatis;
    Outline the molecular mechanisms of gene expression and regulation the principles of genetic engineering and their application in medicine; summarize molecular concept of body defences and their application in medicine;
    Outline the biochemical basis of environmental health hazards; biochemical basis of cancer and carcinogenesis;
    Familiarize with the principles of various conventional and specialized Laboratory investigations and instrumentation analysis and interpretation of a given data; Suggest experiments to support theoretical concepts and clinical diagnosis.

    THEORY SYLLABUS

    I. CELL :

    Subcellular components – Molecular and functional organization.
    Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, Nucleus and subcellular components like Mitochondria, Endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, peroxisomes, cytoskeleton, Golgi apparatus etc.

    II. BIOMOLECULES :
    Introduction
    Chemistry of Carbohydrates – Monosaccharides, disaccharides homo and hetero Polysaccharides.
    Chemistry of Lipids – Classification, fatty acids Eicosanoids and derivatives
    Triglyceride, Phospholipids, Cholesterol, and lipoprotein.
    Chemistry of protein – classification of amino acids; peptides, peptide hormones eg. Insulin, glucagon, parathyroid hormone, and few pituitary hormones. Plasma proteins – classification, method of Separation and Electrophoretic pattern of plasma protein in health and disease. Protein structure and function.
    Nucleic acids : Nucleotides – DNA & RNA Structure, Nucleic acid analogues of medical importance.
    Structure of Haemoglobin, Myoglobin – structural relationship with the function. Abnormal haemoglobin – Congenital and acquired;

    Vitamins and Minerals – (in brief details in Nutrition).

    III. ENZYMES :
    Fundamental aspects of enzymology – definition, classification, mechanism of action, factors affecting enzyme activity – Enzyme regulation – Coenzymes – Isozymes – enzymes of clinical importance.

    IV. NUTRITION :
    Digestion and assimilation of Nutrients :-
    Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins and minerals.
    Nutritional requirements – RDA, SDA, Balanced diet and limiting amino acid.
    Vegetarianism Consequences of malnutrition : Marasmus, Kwashiorkor, overnutrition.

    V. METABOLISM AND REGULATORY PATHWAYS
    Introduction to metabolism. Emphasize the purpose of metabolism like energy production, interconversion and synthesis of important bio molecules etc. High energy compounds Biological oxidation – enzymes involved – oxidative phosphorylation – theories – shuttles. Metabolic pathways, regulation and metabolic errors :-

    Carbohydrates:glycolysis – HMP Pathway – gluconeogenesis – uronic acid pathway – glycogen metabolism – fructose and galactose metabolism and TCA cycle. Regulation of blood glucose – Diabetes Mellitus – hypoglycaemia – Hyper glycaemia. Inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism. Clinically important investigations pertaining to carbohydrate metabolism – reduction test of urine, differential diagnosis for glycosuria including chromatography. Blood sugar values, GTT, glycosylated haemoglobin, fructosamine. Lipid metabolism : Synthesis of fatty acid – Fatty acid oxidation – energetics of oxidation, ketone bodies, metabolism of unsaturated fatty acids – prostaglandine – prostacycline – Thromboxanes – Trilycerides – phospholipids – sphingolipids – Cholesterol and its derivtives. Apoproteins – Fatty liver lipotropic factors.

    Clinically important investigation pertaining to lipids and lipoproteins. Protein metabolism : Dynamic state of body proteins – Interorgan transport of amino acids – Ammonia production – Transport and body amino acid pool – its disposal – Urea cycle. Metabolism of individual amino acidsBiologically important compounds obtained from amino acids including Gamma aminobutyric acid and Polyamines. Clinically important investigations pertaining to protein metabolism – Total protein – albumin – globulin – A.G. ratio – Serum protein electrophoresis – Blood urea – BUN – Serum creatinine – urea and creatinine clearances – Amino acid chromatography for screening inborn errors.

    Integration of Metabolism
    Main control sites of Metabolic pathways and key enzymes.
    Metabolic adaptation during fed state and starvation.
    Metabolism in Principal organs like liver, RBC, adipose tissue, muscle, kidney, heart and brain.

    Nucleic acid Metabolism
    Purine and pyrimidine synthesis and Degradation – Salvage pathways– Abnormalities of Nucleic and metabolism
    Metabolism of Haemoglobin, Porphyrias and Bilirubinaemia
    Porphyrias, Abnormal Hemoglobin and Janudice and investigations pertaining to these disorders.

    VI. GENE EXPRESION AND REGULATION
    Principles of Genetic Engineering and their application in Medicine.
    Basics of Genetics – Chromosomal structure – arrangement of coding sequence and genetic code.
    Biosynthesis of Proteins with Posttranslational modification

    Cell Cycle
    DNA Replication and its repair – RNA Synthesis and Processing – Mutation.
    Gene Expression and Regulation.
    Operon concept, genetic switch – Gene rearrangement – gene amplification – Gene protein Interaction.
    Genetic engineering techniques and their application in medicine.
    Restriction enzymes, Vectors genome library – DNA probes-Blot transfer techniques.
    Recombinant DNA technology, PCR – Polymerase Chain Reaction – Clinical application of genetic engineering.

    VII. INBORN ERRORS :
    Biochemical basis of inherited disorders with their associated sequelae.
    Introduction : to various types of inheritance and types of mutation defect in relation to various inherited disorders.
    Carbohydrates :
    Glycogen storage disease, galactosaemia G6PD deficiency. Lactose Intolerence, Fructose intolerance, Fructosuria, Pentosuria,
    Lipids :
    Disorders of FA Oxidation, Sphingolipidosis, dyslipoproteinaemias,
    Proteins :
    Urea cycle disorders, inborn errors associated with each aminoacid.
    Porphyrias, hyper bilirubinemia (congenital and acquired)
    Hyperuricaemia, Gout, Orotic Aciduria, Lesch Nyhan Syndrome.
    Neonatal screening for and prenatal diagnosis of inborn errors.

    VIII. HOMOEOSTASIS
    Mechanisms involved in the maintenance of body fluids and pH homeostasis.
    Metabolism of water and electrolytes homeostasis of pH – buffer sytem, Role of Kidney and Lungs – Acid base disorders.
    Blood gas analysis and its interpretation and correlation to acid base disorders. 

    IX.  IMMUNITY
    Molecular concept of body defence and application in medicine
    Immunoglobin structure, type, synthesis and function – Antigen binding – monoclonal anti bodies – Hype and Hypogamma globulinaemia Immunodeficiency and AIDS – Biochemical methods of assessing the Immunoglobulin RIA, ELISA.
    X. ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS AND CANCER
    Biochemical basis of Environmental Hazards – occupational hazards (lead, organo phosphorus compounds etc.) Hazards due to modern industrialisation (H S) and traffic pollution (CO) Xenobiotics.
    Biochemical basis of cancer and carcinogenesis – Tumour markers.

    XI. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION :
    Principles of Various conventional and specialised Laboratory investigations and Instrumentation analysis and interpretation of data.
    Principles of conventional and specialised Lab investigation including instrumentation analysis.
    Conventional : manual colorimetric methods for biochemical parameter (dealt with in practical classes).
    Flame photometer
    Spectroscopy
    Specialised : automated techniques Semi and random auto analyser – ELISA – RIA – Fluorimetry – Blood Gas Analyser.
    Interpretation of data :
    Normal range of biochemical parameters – Causes for deviation from normal.

    XII. CLINICAL CHEMISTRY :
    Experiments to support theoretical concept and clinical diagnosis.
    a) Biochemical tests to determine the functional ability of an organ – Liver function test – Renal function test – Pancreatic function test.

    b) Investigations pertaining to hormones – Mode of action of hormone and its function – Thyroid function tests – Parathyroid function tests – Adrenal function tests.
    Biochemical tests to confirm the clinical diagnosis of a disease and their interpretation.
    Jaundice (haemolytic, hepatic and obstructive) – Cirrhosis liver – Acute Renal failure, chronic Renal failure, Nephrotic syndrome – Myocardial infarction – Diabetes mellitus, (mild, moderate and severe.) – Renal glycosuria – Alimentary glycosuria – Rickets – Hypo and hyperparathyroidism – Hypo and hyper thyroidism – Pancreatitis.

    (Metabolic acidosis alkalosis & Respiratory acidosis alkalosis) - both uncompensated and compensated.

    BIOCHEMISTRY PRACTICAL SYLLABUS
    Spotters and Clinical Chemistry Exercise :-

    1. SPOTTERS : The student must identify the spotter and write one most important use of the spotter.

    1. pH paper
    2. Colorimeter
    3. Centrifuge
    4.   Ryle’s tube
    5. Urinometer
    6. Copper Sulphate
    7. Spectroscope
    8. Electrophoresis apparatus
    9. Oxyhaemoglobin
    10. Methaemoglobin
    11. Carboxyhaemoglobin
    12. Glucosazone / Fructosazone
    13. Lactosazone
    14. Maltosazone
    15. Haemin crystals
    16. Electrophoresis paper – normal pattern
    17. Electrophoresis paper – nephrotic syndrome
    18. Electrophoresis paper – cirrhosis of liver
    19. Electrophoresis paper – multiple myoloma
    20. Chromatography paper
    21. Picric acid
    22. Benedict’s qualitative reagent
    23. Structrue of t RNA
    24. Structure of cholesterol
    25. Structure of glucose
    26. Structure of fructose

    Suggest investigations for a case of

    1. Jaundice
    2.  Diabetes mellitus
    3. Acute renal failure
    4. Proteinuria
    5. Oedema
    6. Rickets
    7. Myocardial infarction
    8. Acidosis
    9. Alkalosis
    10. Glycosuria
    11. Aminoaciduria
    12. Hype and Hypo parathyroidism
    13. Hyper and hypothyroidism

    Calculate
          1 .Albumin Globulin ratio with total protein and albumin values   
          2. Calculate minute volume from 24 hours urine volume 
          3. Calculate creatinine clearance with the required parameters given.

      • Interpret
      • Electrophoresis patterns – normal, cirrhosis liver, hepatic syndrome Multiple myeloma
      • Normal GTT and diabetes mellitus glycosurias
      • Acute pancreatitis
      • Myocardial infarction
      • Acute renal failure and nephrotic syndrome
      • Acidoses, alkaloses
      • Hypo and hyper thyroidsm
      • Hypo and hyper parathyroidism
      • Rickets
      • Jaundice

Skills

At the end of the course, the student shall be able to:
make use of conventional techniques / instruments to perform biochemical analysis relevant to clinical screening and diagnosis.
Analyze and interpret investigative data;
Demonstrate the skills of solving scientific and clinical problems and decision making.

Teaching & Learning methods Structured Interactive sessions,
Tutorials,
Group Discussions,
Seminars,  
Projects,  
Self learning modules and
e-modules etc.

About Pharmacology

About Pharmacology   Study of drugs and their orgin, including its nature, properties and effects on living organisms, it studies and evaluates the drugs potential therapeutic value and throws light in the discovery, composition, identification, biological / physioogical effects and use of drugs. Objectives   The broad goal of the teaching of undergraduate students in Pharmacology is to inculcate a rational and scientific basis of therapeutics. Course Contents

At the end of the course, the student shall be able to :

  1. Describe the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics  of essential  and commonly used drugs :
  2. List of indications, contraindications, interactions and adverse reactions of commonly used drugs :
  3. Indicate the use of appropriate drug in a particular disease with consideration to its cost effieasy and safety for
  4. Individual needs
  5. Mass therapy under national health programme
  6. Describe the  pharmacokinetic basis, clinical presentations, diagnosis and management of common poisonings.
  7. List the drugs of addiction and recommend the management.
  8. Classify    environmental    and    occupational    pollutants    and    state    the management issues.
  9. Indicate causation in prescription of drugs in special medical situations such as pregnancy, lactation, infancy and old age.
  10. Integrate the concept of rational drug therapy in clinical pharmacology State the principles underlying the concept of "Essential Drugs".
  11. Evaluate the ethics and modalities in the development and introduction of new drugs.

PHARMACOLOGY SYLLABUS
1. GENERAL PRINCIPLES
a)   Pharmacokinetics
b)   Pharmacodynamics
c)   Principles of therapeutics
d)   Concepts of essential drugs and rational drug therapy
e)   Special aspects of drugs in pregnancy, pertinatal pediatric and geriatric pharmacology.
f)    Ethics and modalities of new drug development
g)  Adverse reactions to drugs and common drug interactions.

2.  DRUGS ACTING AT SYNAPTIC AND NEURO EFFECTOR JUNCTION
a)   Cholinergic and anticholinergic drugs
b)  Adrenergics and adrenergic blockers
c)   Drugs acting at Neuromuscular Junction and autonomic ganglia.

3. OCULAR PHARMACOLOGY

4.  DRUGS ACTING ON CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
a)   General anesthetics
b)   Local anesthetics
c)   Hypno sedatives
d)   Drugs and treatment of psychiatric disorders - psychosis, depression and mania.
e)   Drugs in the therapy of epilepsies
f)    Drugs in the therapy of migraine
g)   Drugs in the central nervous system degenerative disorders
h)  Opioid analgesics and antagonists
i)   Drug addiction and treatment

5. AUTOCOIDS
a)   Histamine, Bradykinin, 5 HT and their antagonists
b)   Lipid derived autocoids
c)   Analgesic - antipyretic and anti inflammatory agents

6.  DIURETICS AND OTHER AGENTS AFFECTING RENAL CONSERVATION OF WATER

7.  DRUGS ACTING ON CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM INCLUDING BLOOD
a)   Drugs used for treatment of Myocardial ischemia, heart failure
b)  Anti arrhythmic drugs
c)   Anti hypertensives
d)   Lipid lowering drugs
e)   Drug Therapy of shock
f)    Hematopoietic agents (growth factors, minerals and vitamins)
g)  Anticoagulants, Thrombolytic and antiplatelet drugs

8.  DRUG ACTING ON RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
a)   Pharmacotherapy of cough
b)   Pharmacotherapy of bronchial asthma

9. THERAPEUTIC GASES

10 . DRUGS AFFECTING GASTROINTESTINAL FUNCTION

11. CHEMOTHERAPY
a)   Chemotherapy of microbial diseases
b)   Chemotherapy of parasitic infections
c)   Chemotherapy of neoplastic diseases
d)  Antiseptics and disinfectants

12. DERMATOLOGICAL PHARMACOLOGY

13. DRUGS USED FOR IMMUNOMODULATION

14. ENDOCRINE PHARMACOLGY
a)   Hypothalamic and pituitary hormones.
b)  Thyroid and antityroid drugs
c)   Adreno corticosteroids and their antagaonists
d)   Gonadal hormones and inhibitors
e)   Panerealic hormones, and antidiabetic drugs
f)   Agents that effect bone mineral homeostasis

15.  ENZYMES IN THERAPY

16. VITAMINS

17. TOXICOLOGY
a)   Principles of toxicology and treatment of poisoning
b)   Heavy metals and antagonists.
c)   Non metallic environmental toxicants.

18.  MISCELLANEOUS
1)   Drugs used in Parkinsonism
2)   Drugs used in gout and (Rheumatoid arthritis)

SYLLABUS IN PRACTICAL PHARMACOLOGY
1) Prescription writing for common ailments.
2)   Prescription audit
3)   Patient oriented problems relating to adverse drug reactions and common drug interactions.
4)   Experiments designed for study of effects of drugs.
5)   Critical evaluation of drug formulations
6)   Dosage calculations
7)   Pharmaco economic problems
8)   Interpretation of clinical pharmacology data

Skills

At the end of the course, the student shall be able to.

  1. Prescribe drug for common ailments.
  2. Recognize adverse reactions and interactions of commonly used drugs.
  3. Observe experiments designed for study of effects of drugs,  bio-assay and interpretation of the experimental data.
  4. Scan  information on common  pharmaceutical  preparations and critically evaluate drug formulations.

Teaching & Learning methods

The following objectives will be covered using theory lectures, small group discussions, simulated clinical case discussions, therapeutic auditing, problem based learning, e-learning and any other teaching learning method which the teacher chooses to select. An overlap between theory and practical classes will serve to reinforce and complement the two. Points not covered in theory can be covered during practical classes.

Integration: During the 7th and 8th semesters, clinical pharmacology with major focus on therapeutics will be taught. This will be done by integrated teaching wherein departments of Pharmacology, Medicine, Psychiatry, Paediatrics etc will come together and discuss common clinical problems in the form of case discussion. The focus will be on therapeutics.

About Pathology

About Pathology   This branch of medical science deals with morbid anatoy of deceased organs, microscopic changes that follow a disease, detection of abnormal and cancerous cells etc. Objectives

The broad goal of the teaching of undergraduate student in Pathology is to provide the students with a comprehensive knowledge of the mechanism and cause of the disease with corresponding tissue changes in order to achieve complete understanding of the natural history and clinical manifestation and to diagnose with appropriate lab investigations.

Course Contents

  1. Knowledge : At the end of the course, the student shall be able to :
  2. Describe the structure of a sick cell, mechanisms of cell degeneratin, cell death and repair and be able to Correlate structural and functional Alterations.
  3. Explain the pathophysiological process, which govern the maintenance of fluid   and   homeostatis,   mechanisms   of   their   disturbance   and   the morphological and clinical manifestations associated with it.
  4. Describe the mechanisms and patterns of tissue response to injury such that he / she can appreciate the Patho-Physiology of diseases process and their clinical manifestations.
  5. Correlate normal and altered morphology (gross and microscopic) of different organ systems in common diseases, to the extend needed for understanding of disease processes and their clinical significance.
    SYLLABUS
    II. M.B.B.S. PATHOLOGY. SYLLABUS
    (PRACTICAL - BY STUDENT, DEMONSTRATION - BY FACULTY)
    1.HEMATOLOGY
    • Introduction to Pathology;
    • Bonemarrow aspiration, Biopsy and cellular details Practical
    • Clinical Pathology Introduction. Demonstration :
    • Demonstration : Bonemarrow aspiration Instruments, Bonemarrow slides - normal.

    2.  R.B.C.  DISORDERS - ANAEMIAS, CLASSIFICATION AND LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS

    • Iron deficiency anaemias & Sideroblastic anaemias.
    • Megoloblastic anaemias
    • Hemolytic anaemias - Congenital and Acquired
    • Aplastic anaemias and Symptomatic Anaemias.
    • Polycythemia

    Practical:

    • Perform
    • Hb, R.B.C. Count
    • Iron deficiency anaemia view the slide & record
    • Macrocytic anaemia view the slide & record
    • Megaloblastic marrow view the slide & record
    • Aplastic marrow, Peripheral smear study, view the slides & record.

    Demonstrations :

    • P.C.V.
    • Sickle cells
    • Thalassemia - Peripheral smear
    • Spherocytic anaemia
    • Hemoglobin Electrophoresis
    • Reticulocytes
    • Heinz bodies
    • Leukopenia, agranulocytosis and Leukocytosis
    • Leukemias & Multiple myeloma

    Practicals :

    • Total W.B.C. count Differential count
    • Neutrophilia Eosinphilia AML, ALL, CML, CLL

     Demonstrations:

    • Guidance and questions Cytochemical stains

    4. COAGULATION DISORDERS

    • Vascular disorders
    • Platelets disorders
    • Coagulation factor deficiency

    Practical:

    • Platelet counts

    Demonstration :

    • Bleeding time, Clotting time.

    5.    BLOOD    GROUP,    BLOOD    BANKING    SYSTEM    AND  
     TRANSFUSION REACTIONS

    Practical:

    • Blood group & RH Factor

    Demonstration :

    • Blood Bank
    • Blood Bank working Pattern

     6. LYMPHNODES

    • Specific and nonspecific lymphadenitis.
    • Lymphomas

    Practical:

    • Lymphomas - specimen Lymphomas – slides
    • Secondary deposits (specimen) & slide

    Demonstration :

    • Guidance

    7. SPLEEN

    • Splenomegaly
 

Practical:

  • CVC Spleen - Specimen & slide CML Spleen, Gauchers spleen - specimen Amyloidosis spleen (Amyloidosis)

Demonstration :

  • Guidance General Pathology
  1. a).  CELL  INJURY AND CELLULAR ADAPTATIONS

Etiologic factors  and mechanisms,   hypoxia,   oxygen  radical   injury  and   hyperexis,   chemical  agents, radiation, Immunological mediators, infectious agents and genetic factors.
Practical :(Student)
Introduction to Histopathology and cytology Laboratory & Museum. Cloudy swelling kidney - specimen & slide.
Demonstration : (Faculty activity)
Guidance slides

8 b).  Reversible and  irreversible cell  injury and  intracellular accumulations, Pathological calcifications.
Adaptation  to  cell  injury,  Atrophy,   hypertrophy,   hyperplasia,   hypoplasia, metaplasia and dysplasia.
Practicals :
Fatty change - Liver specimen & slide
Demonstration :
Guidance - Pathological calcification - specimen

9. INFLAMMATION:
Patterns of inflammation, acute responses and chronic responses. Humoral and cellular participants of inflammation humoral elements, blood - borne cells, stromal elements.

Demonstrations :
Abscess - Liver or Lung - Specimen

10.  MOLECULAR BASIS FO INFLAMMATORY EVENTS :
Chemical mediators, vascular, cellular and molecular events of inflammation, regulation of inflammation.
Practicals:
Acute appendicitis Specimen and slides
Chronic inflammation, Tuberculous granuloma, Foreign body granuloma slides.
Demonstration :
Abscess - Liver or Lung - Specimen Guidance with slides

11.  Repair and regenerationComponents of repair and regeneration reactions, cells of the repair process.  Mechanism of repair.  Regeneration and healing in specific organs. E.g. Fracture Healing.
Practicals :
Granulation tissue
Demonstrations : Guidance

12. GENETICS : Introduction to Medical genetics

13.  HEMOSTASIS AND THROMBOSIS.
Normal hemostasis, abnormal  hemostasis - Vascular defects,  Platelet defects, defect of coagulation proteins, disseminated intravascular coagulation.
Thrombosis
Practicals :
Venous thrombus specimen, Organisation of thrombus slides.
Demonstrations :
Thrombus in left atrium, Coronary arteries

14. CIRCULATORY DISTURBANCE
Edema, hyperemia and congestion, shock, embolism, infarction and gangrene
Practicals :
Filarial leg - specimen, CVC - Liver, Lung, Spleen - specimen and slides.
Embolus - Pulmonary - Specimen, Infarction - Heart, Lung, Specimen and Gangrene foot - Specimen.
Demonstrations :
Pulmonary edema - Specimen and slide, Shock - kidney specimen. Gangrene intestine.

15. NEOPLASIA:
Definition & Tumour Nomenclatures. Characteristics of Neoplastic Cells. Etiology of Neoplasia. Demographic and Familiar aspects of Cancers. Laboratory Diagnosis.

Practicals :
Benign - Lipoma, Leiomyoma, capillary and cavernous angioma schwannoma. Cystic Teratoma - Ovary, Squamous papilloma, Villous papilloma, Adenomatous polyp - Intestine, Chondroma.
Malignant - squamous Cell carcinoma, Chondrosarcoma, Osteosarcoma, Malignant Melanoma - All specimens and slides. Metastic Deposit - Lymphnode, Cytology - Malignant Cells.
Demonstrations :
Dysplasia F.N.A.C. - Positive slides - Guidance and slides Cytology PAP Skin.

16. IMMUNO PATHOLOGY :
Immune responses, Atopic and Anaphylactic reactions, Cytotoxic reaction, immune complex reactions, delayed hypersensitivity granulomatous reactions.
Autoimmunity and Autoimmune diseases. Primary Immunodeficiencies, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome &Amyloidosis.
Practicals :
Amyloid - Liver, Spleen, Kidney Specimens
Demonstrations :
Guidance and Slides

17.  NUTRITIONAL DEPRIVATION DISEASES & RADIATION INJURIES
Protein calorie Malnutrition and Vitamin deficiencies.

18. INFECTIOUS DISEASES
Bacterial Diseases - Gram +ve gram negative infections Typhoid, Tuberculosis, Leprosy, Syphillis, Fungal Diseases, Protozoal Diseases - Amoeba, Malaria.
Practicals :
Actinomycosis, Maduramycosis Specimens and slides. Syphilis - Gumma.
Tuberculous lymphadenitis Tuberculosis - Lung primarycomplex and adult Tuberculous. Leprosy -Lerpromatous & Tuberculoid.
Amoebic abscess (LIVER) and ulcer intestine, Malarial - Spleen, Specimens. Demonstrations :
Guidance and slides

SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
19. VASCULAR SYSTEM :
Atherosclerosis, Arteriosclerosis and Aneurysms.
Practicals :
Atherosclerosis - Aorta - Specimen and slide. Aortic Aneurysms - Syphilitic and Atherosclerotic- Specimen.
Demonstrations :
Slides and Guidance.

20.  PATHOLOGY OF HEART :
Rheumatic Heart Disease, Bacterial Endocarditis, Myocardial Infarction, Hypertensive Heart Disease, Tumours of Heart & Blood Vessels.
Practicals :
Rheumatic mitral stenosis, Bacterial endocarditis, Myocardial Infarction, Hepertensive Cardiac Hypertrophy- Specimens.
Demonstrations :
Left Atrial myxoma specimen.

21.  PATHOLOGY OF LUNG :
Bronchial Asthma, Pneumonia - Bronchial & Lobar, Interstitial Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Bronchiectases and lung abscess, Pnemoconiosis, Tumours of Lungs and Pleura.
Practicals :
Labor pneumonia - Red & Grey hepatization, Bronchiectasis Lung abscess, pulmonary tuberculosis, Emphysema - specimen & slide, Bronchogenic carcinoma, Secondary deposit lung - specimen.
Demonstrations :
Guidance with slides.

22.  PATHOLOGY OF GASTRO INTESTINAL TRACT.
Pleomorphic Adenoma of salivary gland, Carcinoma Esophagus, peptic ulcer, gastric polyps, and gastric carcinoma. Idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases, Tumours of small and large intestines.
Practicals :
Mixed Tumors - salivary gland specimen & slide, carcinoma oesophagus -specimen. Gastric ulcer and carcinoma - specimen & slide Ulcers of the small intestine - typhoid Chron's large intestine amoebic ulcer, carcinoma small & large intestines.
Demonstrations :
Guidance with slides

23.  LIVER, BILIARY TRACTS AND PANCREAS
Hepatitis, Cirrhosis, Tumours of liver
Cholecystits, Gall stone, Tumour of gall bladder
Acute Pancreatitis
Practicals :
Cirrhosis - liver specimen with slides
Hepatoma - specimen with slides
Gall stone - specimen
Demonstrations :
Guidance

24.  KIDNEY
Glomerulonephritis
Nephrotic Syndrome
Practicals :
Contracted kidney specimen
Chronic nephritis specimen
Demonstrations :
Guidance Tubule - interstitial diseases
Nephrosclerosis, Renal calculi
Tumours of the kidney and the urinary bladder
Practicals :
Chronic pyelonephritis specimen & slides
Transitional cell carcinoma specimen and slides
Demonstrations :
Guidance

25. GENITAL SYSTEM MALE :
Carcinoma penis and premalignant lesions, tumours of the testis. Prostate -benign hypertrophy and tumours.
Practicals :
Carcinoma penis - specimen and slides
Seminoma specimen and slides
B.H.P. specimen and slides

Demonstrations :
Guidance E.S.T.
Malignant Teratoma
Carcinoma Prostate

26. GENITAL SYSTEM - FEMALE
Carcinoma - cervix & Premalignant lesion, tumours of the body of uterus
Endometriosis
Ovarian tumours
Trophoblastic tumours
Practicals :
Carcinoma - Cervix specimen, fibroid uterus slides
Carcinoma endometrium slide
Endometrium proliferative/ slide
Endometrium secretory / slide
Serous cystadenoma - specimen & slide
Musinous cystadenoma specimen & slide
Papillary serous carcinoma specimen
Dysgerminoma
Dermoid cyst

Demonstrations :
Guidance with slides

27.  BREAST:
Tumours of the breast
Practicals :
Fibroadenoma breast specimen & slide
Infiltrating ductal carcinoma specimen & slide
Demonstrations :
Guidance / other types of breast carcinoma.

28. ENDOCRINE :
Thyroid / thyroiditis, goitre and tumours of thyroid Phaeo chromocytoma and Neuroblastoma. Pancreas - diabetes and tumours MEN
Practicals :
Colloid goitre specimen / slide Toxic goitre specimen / slide Follicular adenoma specimen / slide Papillary carcinoma specimen / slide

29. SKIN
Premalignant lesions and tumours.
Practicals :
Basal cell carcinoma specimens and slides Squamous cell carcinoma specimens and slides Malignant melanoma specimens and slides.
Demonstrations : Guidance

30. SKELETAL SYSTEM :
Osteomyelitis, bone tumours.
Practicals :
Osteogenic sarcoma, giant cell tumour, Ewings sarcoma - Specimens and slides.
Demonstrations :
Guidance

31. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM :
Meningitis, tumours.

Practicals :
CSF in meningitis - chart.
The student's activity includes frequent symposia & group discussion, internal assessment test, model practical, viva. C.P.C. discussion modules with association of corresponding clinical faculty.
Post mortem demonstration - 10 can be integrated with forensic department.

Skills

At the end of the course, the student shall be able to

  1. Describe  the  rational  and  principles  of technical  procedures  of the diagnostic laboratory tests and interpretation of the, results :
  2. Perform the simple bedside tests on blood, urine and biological fluids samples.
  3. Draw a  rational  scheme  of investigations  aimed  at diagnosing  and managing the causes of common disorders.
  4. Understand biochemical / Physiological disturbances that occur as a result of disease in collaboration with preclinical departments.

  Teaching & Learning methods

• Structured interactive sessions
• Small group discussion
• Practical including demonstrations
• Problem based exercises
• Written case scenario
• Self learning tools
• Interactive learning
• e-modules

About Microbiology

About Microbiology   study of microbes, viruses, fungi, etc. that cause diseases in human beings. It also enlightens on the evidence based drug treatment on microbial diseases. Objectives

The broad goal of the teaching of undergraduate students in Microbiology is to provide an understanding of the natural history of infectious diseases in order to deal with the etiology, Pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, treatment, control and prevention of infections in the community.

Course Contents

At the end of the course the student will be able to:

• State the infective microorganisms of the human body and describe the host parasite relationship.
• List the pathogenic microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, parasites,  fungai and describe the pathogenesis of the diseases produced by them.
• State or indicate the modes of transmission of pathogenic and opportunistic Organisms and their sources  including insect  vectors responsible for transmission of infection.

Describe the mechanisms of immunity to infections.

• Acquire  knowledge on  suitable antimicrobial  agents for treatment of infections and scope of immune - therapy and different vaccines available for prevention of communicable diseases.
• Apply methods of disinfection and sterilization to control and prevent hospital and community acquired infections.
• Recommened laboratory investigations regarding bacteriological examination of food, water, milk and air.

SYLLABUS:
PART -I

I. GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY

  • History and mile stone in Microbiology Scope of Medical Microbiology Microscopy Staining of bacteria Bacterial morphology
  • Nutrition and growth of bacteria
  • Culture media and cultivation of bacteria
  • Identification of bacteria and bacterial classification
  • Bacterial genetics
  • Sterilisation & Disinfection
  • Microbial control
  • Normal Microbial flora
  • Microbial Pathogenicity and immunity

II. IMMUNOLOTY :

  • Host response (immunity)
  • Structures and functions of Immune system
  • Cells of immune system
  • Immune response / immunity
  • Antigen
  • Antibody
  • The complement system
  • Antigen antibody reactions
  • Hypersensitivity
  • Auto immunity
  • Histo compatibility complex
  • Transplantation immunity
  • Tumour immunity
  • Immuno deficiency diseases
  • Immuno hematology
  • Immunoprophylaxis against infectious diseases

III. SYSTEMIC BACTERIOLOGY

  • Staphylococcus
  • Streptococcus
  • Neisseria
  • Corynebacteria
  • Bacillus
  • Clostridium
  • Nonsporing anaerobes
  • Mycobacteria
  • Actinomycetes and Nocardia
  • Coliform Bacteria -Escherichia coli & klebsiella
  • Proteus
  • Salmonella
  • Shigella
  • Yersinia
  • Pasteurella & Grancisella
  • Hemophilus
  • Bordetella
  • Brucella
  • V.Cholerae
  • Pseudomonas
  • Spirochetes
  • Rickettsiae
  • Chlamydia
  • Mycoplasma
  • Miscellaneous bacteria

PART II I.
PARASITOLOGY

  • Introduction
  • Classification
  • General Principles of diagnosing parasites,  infestations and treatment of parasitic infection.
  • Protozoology
  • Rhizopoda - Pathogenic and non-pathogenic amoebae
  • Mastigophora - Intestinal, blood and tissue Mastigophora
  • Sporozoa-Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Isospora
  • Ciliate - Balantidium coli
  • Protozoan of uncertain classification.
  • 5) helminthology - Platyhelminths - Cestodes and Trematodes Nemathelminths -Nematodes

VIROLOGY A GENERAL VIROLOGY

  • Morphology of viruses
  • Replication of viruses
  • Cultivation of viruses
  • Classification of viruses
  • Assay of viruses
  • Identification of viruses and Lab diagnosis
  • Genetics of viruses
  • Pathogenesis and Host response to viral infections
  • Antiviral agents
  • Bacteriophage

B. SYSTEMIC VIOROLOGY DNA VIRUSES

  • Pox viruses
  • Adeno
  • Herpes
  • Papova
  • Parvo
  • RNA Viruses
  • Picorna
  • Orthomyxo
  • Paramyxo
  • Rota Viruses 10.Rhabdo Viruses
  • Hepatitis Viruses
  • Arbo Viruses
  • Retro Viruses
  • Slow Viruses
  • Oncogenic Viruses
  • Miscellaneous Viruses

GENERAL MYCOLOGY

  • Economic importance and harmful effects of fungi - Mycotoxins
  • Classifications of fungi
  • Pathogenesis and Lab diagnosis of mycotic infections.

SYSTEMATIC MYCOLOGY

  • Superficial mycosis
  • Cutaneous mycoses
  • Sub cutaneous mycoses
  • Opportunistic mycosis and common lab contaminants
  • Antifungal agents

APPLIED CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY

  • Collection, transport and disposal of specimens
  • Organ specific infections
  • Central nervous system infections
  • Respiratory infections - Upper/ Lower
  • Urinary tract infections
  • Gastro intestinal infections - acute / chronic
  • Infections of bones and joints
  • Genital tract infections and congenital infections.
  • Infections of the Eye, ear and skin
  • Infection of CVS
  • Systemic infections / Syndromes - PUO, Septicemias
  • Zoonotic infections
  • Environmental sanitation tests (food, water, milk and air)
  • Hospital infections (Prevention and control)
  • Basic molecular biology in relation to diagnosis of infectious diseases.

PRACTICALS

  • Staining - Smear preparation
  • Grams stain
  • Special Stains - Acid fast staining, Albert, Ponders, Spore, and Capsule staining.
  • Demonstration of culture media
  • Demonstration of sterilization techniques
  • Demonstration of bacterial motility - Hanging drop / other methods
  • Applied Exercises
  • Systematic - Identification of the pathogen from the given clinical material based on Staining property, cultural characters, biochemical and serological tests.
  • Immunology - Interpretaion of the given Immunological test. Agglutination -slide, tube and Passive agglutination.
  • Precipitation-VDRL
  • Gel diffusion
  • ELISA
  • Mycology - Identification of the given fungus by cultural morphology and wet mount preparation / staining.
  • Virology-ELISA
  • Haemagglutination and haemagglutination inhibition
  • Parasitology -  Stool  examination  for ova  and  cyst  Saline  and   iodine preparation Direct and concentration techniques.
  • Blood smear for malarial parasite, Microfilaria and other parasite.
Identification and interpretation of the parasites (Adult and larval forms).

Skills

At the end of course the student will be able to

  • Operate and use the light compound microscope.
  • To employ aseptic and sterile precautions while performing simple invasive procedures such as venepuncture etc.
  • Collect and transport appropriate clinical materials with necessary precautions for the laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases.
  • To perform common laboratory techniques ( as given below) for the direct demonstration of microorganisms from clinical materials and interpret their findings. These should include:
  • Wet preparation for Trichomonas vaginalis
  • KOH preparation for the identification of fungal elements.
  • Saline and iodine preparations and concentration methods for demonstration of trophozoites, Ova or cysts in stool samples.
  • Prepare and stain peripheral blood for screening malarial parasites and microfilariae.
  • Prepare a smear and perform Gram stain on body fluids, urine and pus specimens.
  • Prepare a smear and perform Ziehl - Neelsen stain fro demonstration of mycobacteria especially from sputum
  • Perform and interpret cold staining techniques on skin smear for demonstration of M.leprae.
  • Interpret results of microbiological tests including antimicrobial testing for the diagnosis of common infectious diseases.
  • To perform and interpret a skin test.
  • Perform simple standard rapid tests for diagnosis of infectious diseases.
  • o organise the safe handling and disposal of infectious waste.

Teaching & Learning methods Structured interactive sessions, Small group discussion, Role play, Practical including demonstrations, Problem based exercises, Video clips, Written case scenario, Self learning tools, Interactive learning and e-modules  

About Forensic Medicine

The branch of medical science that uses medica knowledge for legal purposes, to enhance credibility of evidences.

Objectives

The goal of teaching Forensic Medicine to undergraduate student is to impart knowledge of legal procedures involved in practice of medical profession and to apply the knowledge of medical science for the purpose of executing justice in courts of law. Further the teaching will help the students to know of medical ethics and etiquette to be followed during the practice of medicine.

Course Contents

At the end of the course the student shall be able to:
Appear in a court of law as Registered Medical Practitioner and give evidence in cases of homicide. Assault, Sexual offences, Alcoholic intoxication, Drug dependence and other cases requiring medical opinion. Practice medicine in the society following medical ethics and etiquette as prescribed by the Indian Medical Council.

SYLLABUS
Forensic Medicine - Including Medical Jurisprudence and Toxicology

IDENTIFICATION

Definition and data to establish identify-Race, religion, sex, age, stature, complexion and features, external peculiarities, anthropometry, dactylography, and poroscopy - superimposition technique - Forensic odontology - Medico - legal importance of age and sex.

THANATOLOGY (DEATH)
Types of death-modes of death and their patho-physiology-causes of death, classification and medico - legal aspects of natural death.

POST MORTEM CHANGES:
Signs of death and changes following death and their medico-legal importance- Adipocere, mummification, embalming-Estimation of post mortem interval (time of death) - Presumption of death and survivorship.

VIOLENT ASPHYXIAL DEATHS
Classification-Hanging, Stragulation by ligature Throtting, Smothering, Gagging, Overlaying, Brukin, Choking, Drowning and sexual asphyxia.

4.  DEATH DUE TO COLD, HEAT, ELECTRICITY AND RADIATION

5. ANAESTHETIC AND OPERATIVE DEATHS

6.  MECHANICAL INJURIES (WOUND)

  • Classification and mechanism of wound production Abrasions, Contusions, Incised wounds, Chop wounds, stab wounds and Lacerated wounds and their medico-legal Importance. Firearm classification and cartridges.
  • Firearm wounds by different firearms and their medico - legal importance -Bomb explosion wounds.
  • Regional injuries on the body and medico - legal importance.
  • Medico - legal aspects of wounds - Issue of medico - legal certificates for legal purposes.
  • Homicide & types of homicide
  • Simple and Grievous injuries -causes of death from wounds

7. IMPOTENCE AND STERILITY

  • Definition, causes, and medico-legal importance.
  • Sterilization and Artificial insemination and their medico - legal importance

8. VIRGINITY, PREGNANCY AND DELIVERY
Definition, diagnosis and medico-legal importance Pseudocyesis, Superfecundation, Superfaelation Legitimacy and Paternity and their medico-legal importance.

9. SEXUAL OFFENCES

  • Classification - Rape - definition, examination of victim and the accused -Incest, Unnatural sexual offences, types and their medico legal importance. Sexual Perversion - types and their medico - legal importance - Indecent assault.
  • Examination of seminal fluid

10. ABORTION

  • Definition, classification, methods of procuring abortion, diagnosis and evidences of abortion, medico-legal questions arising in suspected cases of abortion. Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act.

11. INFANTICIDE

  • Definition, still birth, dead birth and live birth signs of live birth andautopsy in suspected case of infanticide
  • Causes of death and medico - legal importance. Abandoning of infants, concealment of birth, Battered baby syndrome, Cot death.

 

12.    EXAMINATION   OF   BLOOD   STAINS   AND   HAIR   AND      SUSPECTED BIOLOGICAL AND FIBRES STAINS.

13. ORGANISATION OF FORENSIC SCIENCE LABORATORY

  • Locard's Principle; Lie detection, Narcoanalysis, Hypnosis

15.  FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY

  • Delusion, Hallucination, Illusion, Impulse, Obsession, Delirium, Lucid interval Classification of unsoundness of mind and medico - legal aspects. Restraint o fhte insane.

16.  MEDIC0-LEGAL AUTOPSY

  • Protocol, Technique, Postmortem report Examination of set of bones Exhumation

17. TOXICOLOGY

  • General consideration - Law on poisons, classification of poisons. Diagnosis of poisoning in the live and dead. Duties of the medical practitioner in suspected case of poisoning. General principles of treatment of poisoning.
  • Corrosive poisons, Non-metallic poisons, Insecticides and weed killers, Metallic poison, Organic irritant poison, Somiferous poisons,  Inebriants, Deliriants,
  • pinal poisons, food poisoning, cardiac poisons,  Aspyxiants, war gases Curare, Conium. Drug dependence and Addiction.

18.  MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE

  • Legal Procedure - Inquests, subpoena, Conduct money, Procedure of Criminal Trial, Record of evidence, types of evidence, Medical evidence, types of witnesses.

19.  MEDICAL LAW AND ETHICS

  • Laws governing medical profession :
  • Indian Medical Council and State Medical Council organisations, functions, and powers - Rights and privileges of Registered Medical Practitioner, Infamous Conduct. Professional negligence (Malpractice)

DUTIES OF MEDICAL PRACTITIONERS :

  • Doctrine of Reipsa Loquitor, Contributory negligence, vicarious responsibility consent, Euthanasia.

Skills

To conduct autopsy on medico-legal cases and issue postmortem certificate. To examine cases of wound ( Assault, Homicide etc.,) at the hospital and issue required medico - legal certificate (wound certificate)
To treat cases of poisoning and issue certificate to court and police.

Teaching & Learning methods

Structured interactive sessions, Small group discussion, Practical including demonstrations, Problem based exercises, Video clips, Written case scenario, Self learning tools, Interactive learning and e-modules

About Community Medicine

Community medicine plays a major role in preventive measures of diseases and health hazards in the society.

Objectives

Aim of teaching by the department is directed towards achievement of the goal of "Health for All". Towards this end, by the completion of his training, the M.B.B.S. student should be :

  1. Aware of the physical, social, psychological, economic and environment aspect of health and disease.
  2. Able to apply the clinical skills to recognise and manage common health problems including their physical, emotional and social aspects at the individual and family levels and deal with medical emergencies at the community level.
  3. Able to define and manage the health problems of the community he / she serves. To achieve this, he / she shall learn to :
  1. Organise   elementary   epidemiological   studies   to   assess   the   health problems in the area. For this he should be able to design a study, collect data,  analyse it with statistical tests,  make a report and be able to participate in a health information system.
  2. Prioritise the most important problems and help formulate a plan of action to manage them under National Health Programme guidelines including population control and family welfare programme. He should be able to assess and allocate resources, implement and evaluate the programmes.
  3. Demonstrate knowledge of principles of organising prevention and control of communicable and non-communicable diseases.
  4. Organise health care services for special groups like mothers, infants, under-five children and school children.
  5. Organise health care in case of calamities.
  1. Able to work as an effective member of the health team.
  2. Able to coordinate with and supervise other members of the health team and maintain liaison with other agencies.
  3. Able to plan and implement health education programmes. Able to perform administrative functions of health centres.
  4. Able to promote community participation especially in areas of disease control, health education and implementation of national programmes.
  5. ware of the national priorities and the goals to be achieved to implement primary health care.

Course Contents

I. Concepts in Health

  1. Definition of health; appreciation of health as a relative concept; determinants of health.
  2. Characteristics of agent, host and environmental factors in health and disease and the multifactorial aetiology of disease.
  3. Various levels of prevention with appropriate examples.
  4. Indices used in measurement of health.
  5. Health situation in India: demography, mortality and morbidity profile and the existing facilities in health services.
  6. Difficulties in measurement of health.

 II. EPIDEMIOLOGY

  1. Use of basic epidemiological tools to make a community diagnosis of the health situation in order to formulate appropriate intervention measures.
  2. Epidemiology : definition, concept and role in health and disease.
  3. Definition of the terms used in describing disease, transmission and control.
  4. Natural history of disease and its application in planning intervention.
  5. Modes of transmission and measures for prevention and control of communicable and non-communicable disease.
  6. Principal sources of epidemiological data.
  7. Definition, calculation and interpretation of the measures of frequency of diseases and mortality.
  8. Common sampling techniques, simple statistical methods for the analysis, interpretation and presentation of data, frequency distribution, measures of central tendency, measures of variablility.
  9. Need and uses of screening tests.
  10. Accuracy and clinical value of diagnostic and screening tests (sensitivity, specificity, predictive values).
  11. Planning, collecting, analysing and interpreting data to reach a community diagnosis. Planning an intervention programme with community participation based on the community diagnosis.
  12. Epidemiology of communicable and non-communicable diseases of public health importance and their control.
  13. Epidemiological basis of national health programmes.
  14. Awareness of programmes for control of non-communicable diseases.
    1. Planning and investigation of an epidemic of a communicable disease in a community setting.
    2. Institution of control measures and evaluation of the effectiveness of these measures.
  15. Various types of epidemiological study designs.
  16. Application of computers in epidemiology.

III. BIOSTATISTICS

      1. The scope and uses of biostatistics.
      2. Collection, classification and presentation of statistical data.
      3. Analysis and interpretation of data.
         
  1. Obtaining   information,   computing   indices   (rates   and   ratio)   and   making comparisons.
  2. Apply statistical methods in designing of studies.
      1. Choosing of appropriate controls.
      2. Applying test of significance.
      3. Use of statistical tables.

IV. ENTOMOLOGY

  1. Role of vectors in the causation of diseases.
  2. Steps of management of a case of insecticide toxicity.
  3. Identifying features of and mode of transmission of vector borne diseases.
  4. Methods of vector control with advantages and limitations of each.
  5. Mode of action, dose and application cycle of community used insecticides.

V. ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION

    1. Concept of safe and wholesome water.
    2. Requirement of sanitary sources of water.
    3. Methods of purification of water with stress on chlorination of water-large scale and small scale purification.
  1. Physical, chemical standards; tests for assessing quality of water.
  2. Disposal of solid waste and liquid waste both in the context of urban and rural conditions in the country.
  3. Problems in the disposal of solid waste and liquid waste both in the context of urban and rural conditions in the country.
  4. Concepts of safe disposal of human and animal excreta.
  1. Sources, health hazards and control of environmental pollution.
  2. Influence of physical factors - like heat, humidity, cold, radiation and noise -on the health of the individual and community.
  3. Standards of housing and the effect of poor housing on health.

VI. NUTRITION

  1. Common   sources  of  various   nutrients  and   special   nutritional   requirement according to age, sex, activity, physiological condition.
  2. Nutritional assessment of individual, family and the community by selecting and using appropriate methods such as : anthropometry, clinical, dietary, laboratory techniques.
  3. Compare recommended allowances of individuals and families with actual intake.
  4. Plan and recommend a suitable diet for the individuals and families bearing in mind local availability of foods, economic status etc.
  5. Common nutritional disorders : Protein energy malnutrition, Vit.A.def., anaemia, iodine deficiency disease, fluorosis, food toxins diseases and their control and management.
  6. National programmes in nutrition.

VII. GENETICS AND COMMUNITY HEALTH

  1. Basic principles of genetics.
  2. Chromosomal disorders.
  3. Genetic predisposition in common disorders.
  4. Advances in molecular genetics.
  5. Preventive and social measures - Eugenics & Euthenics, genetic counselling.
  6. Early diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation.

VIII. SOCIOLOGY AND COMMUNITY HEALTH

  1. Conduction of a clinico - social evaluation of the individual in relation to social, economic and cultural aspects ; educational and residential background; attitude to health, disease and to health services; the individual's family and community.
  2. Assessment of barriers to good health, to recovery from sickness and to leading a socially and economically productive life.
  3. Development of a good doctor - patient relationship.
  4. Identification of social factors related to health and disease in the context of urban and rural societies.
  5. Impact of urbanisation on health and disease.

IX. HEALTH EDUCATION

  1. Effective communication with individuals, family and community using tools and techiques of information, education and communication.
    1. Barriers to effective communication.
    2. Principles, methods and evaluation of health education.
    3. Methods of health educaiton-their advantages and disadvantages.
    4.  Selection and use of appropriate media (simple audio-visual aids) for effective health education.

2.  Use of opportunities for health education of the individual, family and the community.

X. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF SPECIFIC DISEASES
The specific objectives of selected communicable diseases of public health importance for which National Disease Control / Eradication Programmes have been formulated are described here. For other diseases, the individual teacher would formulate the objectives while drawing the lesson plans. The idea of formulating objectives for a few diseases is to highlight their importance and to emphasise certain learning outcomes.
Poliomyelitis, Infective hepatitis, ARI, Tuberculosis, Leprosy, Malaria, filariasis, Kala Azar, STDs & AIDS, Diarrhoeal diseases, Hypertension, coronary heart disease, Blindness, Mental Health.

  1. Extent of the problem, epidemiology and natural history of the disease.
  2. Relative public health importance of a particular disease in a given area.
  3. Influence of social, cultural and ecological factors on the epidemiology of the disease.
  4. Control of communicable and non-communicable disease.
    1. Diagnosing and treating a case and in doing so demonstrate skills in :
  5. Clinical methods,
  6. Use of essential laboratory techniques,
  7. Selection of appropriate treatment regimes,
  8. Follow - up of cases.
    1. Principles of planning, implementing and evaluating control measures for the diseases at the community level bearing in mind the relative importance of the disease.
  1. Institution of programmes for the education of individuals and communities.
  2. Investigating a disease epidemic.
  3. Principles of measures to control a disease epidemic.
  4. Level of awareness of causation and prevention of disease amongst individuals and communities.
  5. Control of communicable and non-communicable diseases by diagnosting and treating a case and in doing so demonstrate skills in:
  6. Instituting   measures,   whereever   necessary,   for   preventing   disabilities   / deformities.
  7.  Rehabilitation of the patient.
  8. Training of health workers in
  9. Disease surveillance,
  10. Control and treatment,
  11. Health education.
  12. 11. Managerial skills in the areas of
  13. supervision,
  14. collection and compilation of data
  15. maintenance of records,
  16. transmission of data.

XI. DEMOGRAPHY & FAMILY PLANNING

  1. Definition of demography and family welfare programme.
  2. Stages of the demographic cycle and their impact on the population.
  3. Definition, calculaiton and interpretation of demographic indices like birth rate, death rate, growth rate, fertility rates.
  4. Reasons for rapid population growth in India.
  5. Need for population control measures and the National Population Policy.
  6. Different family planning  methods and their advantages and shortcomings. Recent advances in contraception.
  7. Motivating a couple to select the appropriate family planning method.
  8. Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act.
  9. Guidance for MTP and infertility services.
  10. National Family Welfare Programme.

XII. METERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH (MCH)

  1. Need for specialised services for these groups.
  2. Magnitude of morbidity and mortality in these groups in a given area.
  3. Local customs and practices during pregnancy, child birth and lactation.
  4. Concepts of 'high risk' and 'MCH Package', Child survival and Safe Motherhood, Integrated Child Development Scheme and other existing regional programme.
  5. Under- 5: Morbidity, mortality, high risk and care.
  6. Monitoring of growth and development and use of Road to Health Chart.
  7. Organisation, implementation and evaluation of programmes for mothers and children as per National Programme guidelines; supervising health personnel; maintaining  records;   performing  a  nutritional  assessment;   promoting  breast feeding.

XIII. SCHOOL HEALTH

1.   Objectives of the School Health Programme.
2.   Activities of the Programme like:

  1. Carrying out periodic medical examination of the children and the teachers.
  2. Immunisation of the children in the school.
  3. Health education.
  4. Mid-day meals.

3.   Participation   of  the   teachers   in   the   school   health   programme   including maintenance   of   records;   defining   healthful   practices;   early   detection   of abnormalities.

XIV. COMMUNITY GERIATRICS

  1. Common diseases of the elderly.
  2. Prevention of degenerative diseases - role of exercise, nutrition, life style, etc.
  3. Osteoporosis and arthroses - effects of immobility - prevention of contractures and bed sores.
  4. Economic and psychosocial needs of the aged.
  5. Care of elderly in organised and unorganised sectors.
  6. Role of Health Visitor and Social Worker.
  7. Social problems in the elderly - Joint family; Day care centre and Day Hospital; home for the aged -Care giver.

XV. URBAN HEALTH
1.   Common   health   problems (   Medical,    Social,    Environmental,    Economic, Psychological) of urban dwellers.
2.   Organisation of health services for slum swellers.
3.   Organization of health services in urban areas.

XVI. MENTAL HEALTH

  1. Importance of Mental Health.
  2. Types of mental illness and causes.
  3. Preventive aspects.
  4. Mental Health Services.
  5. Alcoholism, drug dependence - Epidemiological factors and prevention.

XVII. HEALTH PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT

  1. Explain the terms : public health, public health administration,  regionalisation, comprehensive medical care, delivery of health care, planning, management, evaluation.
  2. Salient features of the National Health Policy: provision of medical care; (b) primary health care and Health for All; (c) health manpower development; (d) planned development of health car facilities; (e) encouragement of indigenous systems of medicine; (f) recommendations of Health committees.
  3. Process of health care delivery in India :
  4. the health systems and health infrastructure at centre, state and district levels;
  5. the inter-relationship between community development block and primary health centre;
  6. the organisation, functions and staffing pattern of community health centres, primary health centres and sub-center;
  7. the job desceiptions of health supevisor (male and female), health workers, village health guide, anganwadi workers, traditional birth attendants;
  8. the activities of the health team at the primary health centre.
  9. Managemetn techniques : define and explain principles of management; explain the  three   broad  functions   of  management   (planning,   implementation   and evaluation) and how they relate to each other.
  10. Appreciate   the   need   for   International   Health   Regulations   and   Disease surveillance.
  11. Constitutional provisions for health in India: Enumerate the three major divisions of responsibilities and functions (concerning health) of the union and the state governments.
  12. Appreciate the role of national and international voluntary agencies in health care delivery.
  13. Explain the terms : cost - effectiveness, cost - benefit.

XVIII. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH

    Relate the history of symptoms with the specific occupation including agriculture.
    • Employees State insurance Scheme.
    • Identification of the physical, chemical and biological hazards to which workers are exposed while working in a specific occupational environment.
    • Diagnostic criteria of various occupational diseases.
    • Preventive measures against these diseases including accident prevention.
    • Various legislations in relation to occupational health.

Skills

1.   Communication
The student should be able to communicate effectively with family members at home ; patients at clinics or at homes; individuals,family or a group for health education ; peers at scientific forums.

2.   Team activity
Work as a member of the health team in planning and carrying out field work like school health.

3.   Environmental sanitation
Collect water samples for microbiological evaluation ; chlorination of water; estimate the chlorine demand of water; estimate the residual chlorine of water ; insecticides ; their proper storage and use in control of vectors.

4.   Communicable and Non - communicable diseases

  • Eliciting clinico-social history and examining the patient for diagnosis and treatment.
  • Collection   of   appropriate   material   for   microbiological,   pathological   or biochemical tests.
  • Fixing , staining and examining smears -peripheral blood smear for malaria and filariasis, sputum for AFB; slit skin smears for leprosy;   Hb estimation; urine and stool examination.
  • Assessing the severity and / or classifying dehydration in diarrhea upper respiratory tract infection, dog bite, leprosy .
  • Adequate  and  appropriate  treatment and  follow-up  of leprosy,   malaria, filariasis rabies, upper respiratory tract infections, diarrhea and dehydration
  • Advice on the prevention and prophylaxis of common diseases like vaccine preventable diseases, tetanus, malaria,   filariasis, rabies, cholera, typhoid, intestinal parasites.
  • Use of proper screening methods in early diagnosis of common diseases.\
  • Take necessary steps in / disease out break / epidemics / natural disasters -Investigation of epidemic, food poisoning; notification; organising medical care following disasters.

5.   Mental and Child Health

  • Antenatal - examination of the mother; application of the risk approach in antenatal care.
  • Intranatal -conducting a normal delivery ; early recognition of danger in intranatal period; referral of cases requiring special care.
  • Postnatal - assessment of the mother and new born advice on appropriate family planning method; promotion of breast feeding; advice on weaning.
  • Assessment of growth and development of the child use of the 'road to health ' card ; recording important anthropometric assessments of the child; giving immunisation to the child; identifying high risk infants.

6.   Statistics

  • Make proper sample.
  • Apply appropriate tests of significance to make correct inference.
  • Simple analysis and presentation of data.

7.   Nutrition

  • Conducting a diet survey.
  • Community survey and clinical diagnosis of nutritional deficiencies; vitamin A deficiency , iodine deficiency , malnutrition.
  • Making recommendations regarding diet,

8.   Occupational Health

  • Inspection of work sites.
  • Recommendation in improving work sites.
  • Medical examination of workers

9.   Health care of the community

  • Ensuring community participation in health care.
  • Arranging intersectoral coordination where necessary.
  • Working in liaison with other agencies involved in health care in various National Health Programmes.

10. Health Management

  • Be an effective team leader.
  • Guide and train workers
  • Supervision of workers and programmes.

11. Family Planning : Advice on appropriate methods.

12. Managerial : Organise antenatal and under-five clinic.

Teaching & Learning methods

Structured interactive sessions,
Small group discussion,
Focused group discussion (FGD),
Participatory learning appraisal (PLA),
Family and community visits,
Institutional visits,
Practical including demonstrations,
Problem based exercises,
Video clips,
Written case scenario,
Self learning tools,
Interactive learning and
e-modules

About General Medicine

A major branch of clinical study involving the diseases, its pattern, manifestation and therapeutics. It also involves the critical care management of emergency situations.

Objectives
At the end of the clinical postings in General Medicine, the medical student should

  1. Be able to evaluate each patient as a person in society and not merely as a collection of organ systems.
  2. Have developed an interest in and care for all types of patients. Recognise differences between normal and abnormal behaviour.
  3. Be able to discern the hopes and fears of patients which inevitably underlie the symptom complexes and know how to handle these emotions, both in the patient and in others.
  4. Possess sound knowledge of common diseases, their clinical manifestations and natural history.
  5. Elicit a good clinical history and physical findings, elucidate the clinical problems based on these and discuss the differential diagnosis.
  6. Requisition relevant laboratory tests and perform common side lab procedures.
  7. Be familiar with common imaging techniques, their advantages, diadvantages and indications; be aware of radiation hazzards and measures to protect thereform.
  8. Outline the principles of management of various diseases, including the medical and surgical procedures available.
  9. Describe the mode of action of commonly used drugs, their doses, side effects, toxicity, indications, contraindications and drug interactions.
  10. Have an open attitude to the newer developments in medicine to keep abreast of new knowledge.
  11. Diagnosis and provide competent initial care to medical emergencies. Refer medical problems to secondary and tertiary care at appropriate times. Recognise the problems arising in patients of AIDS.
  12. Have an understanding of the art of medicine involving communication with patients, demonstration of empathy, reassurance, patient education and an understanding of the patient's socioeconomic circumstances in relation to management.
  13. Learn to be adaptable to new ideas and new situations where resources may be limited.
  14. Possess knowledge of an perform certain procedure.
  15. Understand the ethical and legal implications of one's medical decisions.

Course Contents I. CLINICAL METHODS IN THE PRACTICE OF MEDICINE

  1. Clinical approach to the patient: The art of medicine, doctor-patient relationship, communication skills and doctor's responsibilities.
  2. Clinical Approach to disease and care of patient; diagnostic possibilities based on interpretation of history,  physical findings and  laboratory investigations and principles of rational management.

II. COMMON SYMPTOMS OF DISEASE

  1. Pain : Pathophysiology, clinical types, assessment and management.
  2. Fever: Pathophysiology of heat regulation, its disturbances, clinical types, clinical assessment and management.
  3. Cough, expectoration and haemoptysis.
  4. Dyspnoea, tachypnoea, and cyanosis.
  5. Common   urinary   symptoms   including   dysuria,   oliguria,   nocturia,   polyuria, incontinence and enuresis.
  6. Oedema and anasarca.
  7. Shock andcardiovascular collapse;
  8. Cardiac murmurs : functional and organic; Palpitation.
  9. Anorexia, nausea and vomiting.
  10. Constipation and diarrhoea.
  11. Haematemesis, malena and haematochezia.
  12. Jaundice and hepatomegaly.
  13. Abdominal swelling andascites.
  14. Weight loss and weight gain.
  15. Fainting, syncope and seizures; headache, dizziness and vertigo.
  16. Paralysis, movement disorders and disorders of gait.
  17. Coma and other disturbances of consciousness.
  18. Pallor and bleeding.
  19. Enlargement of lymph nodes and spleen.
  20. Joint pains and pain in the extremities and back.

III. NUTRITION / EXPOSURE TO PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL AGENTS

  1. Nutrition in clinical medicine and dietary management,
    1. Nutritional requirements.
    2. Protein calorie malnutrition in adults.
    3. Obesity.
    4. Vitamin deficiency and excess.
  2. Fluid and electrolyte balance; acidosis and alkalosis in particular relevance to vomiting, diarrhoea, uraemia and diabetic ketoacidosis.
  3. 3.   Poisonings:    phenobarbitone,    organophosphorous    compounds,    sedative   / hypnotic and others common in the locality.
  4. Acute and chronic effects of alcohol and their management.
  5. Venoms, stings, insect bites : poisonous snakes, insects and scorpions.
  6. Disturbances of temperature : heat stroke, heat exhaustion and cold exposure.
  7. Drowning, electrocution and radiation hazards.

IV. INFECTIONS

  1. Approach to infectious diseases - diagnostic and therapeutic principles.
  2. General principles of rational use of antibiotics and other chemotherapy against the following :
  3. Common gram positive infections.
  4. Common gram negative infections.
  5. Enteric fever.
  6. Cholera, gastroenteritis, food poisoning and dysentery.
  7. Influenza and other common viral respiratory infections.
  8. Rabies.
  9. Tetanus.
  10. Herpes simplex and herpes zoster.
  11. Amoebiasis and worm infestations.
  12. Malaria, filariasis, leishmaniasis.
  13. Common exanthemata.
  14. HIV infection and infections in the immunocompromised conditions.
  15. Common sexually tramsmitted diseases.
  16. Common fungal infections.
  17. Viral encephalitis.
  18. Tuberculosis.
  19. Leprosy
  20. Infectious mononucleosis.
  21. Brucellosis.

V. HAEMATOLOGY

  1. Definition,    prevalence,    aetiological    factors,    pathophysiology,    pathology, recognition, investigations and principles of treatment of:
      1. Anaemias : iron deficiency, megaloblastic and common haemolytic anaemias (thalassemia, sickle cell and acquired haemolytic).
      2. Common bleeding disorders (thrombocytopenia and haemophilia), iii. Agranulocytosis and aplastic anaemia.
  2. Leukaemias.
  3. Lymphomas.
  4. Blood group and transfusion : Major blood group systems and histocompatibility complex,   concepts  of transfusion   and   component  therapy;   indications  for transfusion therapy, precautions to be taken during blood transfusion, hazards of transfusion and safe handling of blood products.

VI. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

    1. Physiology and diagnostic methods : Sputum examinatin, X-ray chest, pulmonary function tests and bronchoscopy.
    2. Upper respiratory infections.
    3. Pneumonias.
    4. Bronchiectasis and lung abscess.
    5. Bronchial asthma and tropical eosinophilia.
    6. Chronic obstructive airway disease and cor pulmonale.
    7. Acute and chronic respiratory failure.
    8. Diseases of pleura : pleural effusion, empyema, pneumothorax.
    9. Pulmonary tuberculosis.
    10. Neoplasms of lung.
    11. Common occupational lung diseases.

VII. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

  1. ECG, Xray chest with reference to common cardiovascular diseases.
  2. Coronary artery disease.
  3. Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease.
  4. Infective endocarditis.
  5. Hypertension and hypertensive heart disease.
  6. Acute and chronic heart failure.
  7. Common congenetal heart diseases in adolescents and adults : ASD, VSD, PDA, TOF and coarctation of aorta.
  8. Common cardiac arrhythmias.
  9. Acute and chronic pericarditis, pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade.
  10. Common aortic diseases ; peripheral vascular disease : arterial and venous.

VIII. GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT

  1. Stool   examination,   endoscopy   and   radiology   in   reference   to   common gastrointestinal diseases.
  2. Acid peptic disease.
  3. Malabsorption syndrome.
  4. Inflammatory bowel diseases and irritable bowel syndrome.
  5. Acute and chronic hepatitis.
  6. Cirrhosis of liver.
  7. Abdominal tuberculosis.

IX. EMERGENCY MEDICINE

  1. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
  2. Acute pulmonary oedema.
  3. Hypertensive emergencies.
  4. Diabetic ketoacidosis and hypoglycaemia.
  5. Status epilepticus.
  6. Acute severe bronchial asthma.
  7. Shock and anaphylaxis.
  8. Acute myocardial infarction.
  9. Upper GI bleed and hepatic coma.
  10. Diagnosis and management of comatose patient.
  11. Management of unknown poinsoning.

X. NERVOUS SYSTEM

  1. Cerbrovascular diseases.
  2. Meningitis : Viral, bacterial and tuberculous.
  3. Peripheral neurophathy.
  4. Epilepsy.
  5. Extrapyramidal diseases.
  6. Common compressive and noncompressive spinal cord syndromes.
  7. Motor system disease.
  8. Myasthenia gravis.
  9. Common myopathies in India.
  10. Degenerative, nutritional and metabolic diseases of the nervous system.

XI. URINARY SYSTEM

  1. Acute renal failure.
  2. Chronic renal failure.
  3. Glomerulonephritides and hephrotic syndrome.
  4. Urinary tract infections / pyelonephritis.
  5. Tubulointerstitial diseases and toxic nephropathies.

XII. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISORDERS

  1. Rheumatoid arthritis.
  2. Degenerative joint disease including cervical spondylosis.
  3. Systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis and other collagen vascular diseases.
  4. Gout.

XIII. ENDOCRINES

  1. Diabetes mellitus.
  2. Hypo and hyperthyroidism; iodine deficiency disorders.
  3. Cushing's syndrome and Addison's diseae; Hyperalosteronism.
  4. Pituitary disorders: Gigantism, Acromegaly and Sheehan's syndrome.
  5. Calcium and phosphorus metabolism: parathyroid and metabolic bone disease.

XIV. GERIATRICS

  1. Biology of aging ; Factors accelerating senescence.
  2. Age related changes in various organ systems.
  3. Presentation of diseases in the elderly; Identification of common diseases.
  4. Diet for the aged; Management of Nutritional disorders.
  5. Acute medical problems - infections, dehydration, acute confusional states.
  6. Osteoporosis : Degenerative joint diseases; effects of immobility - prevention of contracture and bed sores.
  7. Neurological disturbances - management & rehabilitation.
  8. Psychogeriatrics - Sensory deprivation; personality changes, depressive illness.
  9. Social problems in the elderly - Joint family system; Day care centre and Day hospital; home for the aged.
  10. Rehabilitation - Assessment of functional status - Activities of daily living, Instrumental activities of daily living, Role of physiotherapist and Social Worker.

XV. DERMATOLOGY

  1. Diseases caused by nutritional and environmental factors.
  2. Infective disorder: Pyodermas, Common Viral and Fungal infections.
  3. Infestations : Scabies, Pediculosis.
  4. Melanocyte, Pigment metabolism and disorders of pigmentation; lcthyosis.
  5. Allergic disorders : Urticaria, Atopic dermatitis, and contact dermatitis.
  6. Common drug reactions and eruptions : Erythema multiforme, Toxic epidermal necrolysis, and Exfoliative dermatitis.
  7. Dermatitis and Eczema.
  8. Vesiculobullous Diseases : Pemphigus, Pemphigoid and Dermatitis herpetiformis.
  9. Alopecia and Hirsutism.
  10. Sebaceous glands : Structure and Function; Acne, Seborrhoeic dermatitis, Other diseases; Pityriasis capitis.
  11. Sweat glands : Structure, Function and Diseases; Maliaria, Hyperhidrosis.
  12. 12. Leprosy  :   Classification,   Pathology,   Clinical features,   Diagnosis,   Reactions, Management, Deformities and Control Programme.
  13. Psoriasis.
  14. Lichen Planus.
  15. Sexually Transmitted Diseases : Genital ulcerative diseases, Genital discharge diseases.
  16. Dermatological therapy.

XVI. PSYCHIATRY

  1. Historical aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness; concept of mental   health  vs  mental   illness;   classificatory  system   currently  in  use  in psychiatry.
  2. Eliciting   a   detailed   psychiatric   history   and   conducting   a   mental   status examination; defining and interpreting psychopathological symptoms and signs.
  3. Concepts  underlying  normal  and  abnormal  human  behaviour;   principles  of learning, memory, personality and intelligence; psychopathology (cf. behavioural sciences)
  4. Classification of the different types of psychoses; differences between psychoses and neuroses, difference between functional and organic psychoses.
  5. Clinical features , diagnosis and management of : Schizophrenia; Mania and depression; Anxiety disorders and hysteria; Dementia ; Alcoholism; Drug abuse .
  6. Clinical recognition and initial therapy of psychiatric emergencies.
  7. Clinical   features,   diagnosis   and   management   of   psychiatric   disorders   of childhood and adolescence.
  8. Personality disorders

XVII. RADIODIAGNOSIS
Respiratory   system:    Diagnosis   of   common   conditions   like   tuberculosis, consolidation,    pleural    effusion,    pneumothorax,    lung    abscess,    collapse, bronchogenic carcinoma and  mediastinal   masses;   Differential   diagnosis   of mediastinal masses; indications for bronchography, tomography and CT scans.

  • Cardiovascular system: Normal topography of heart, cardiomegaly; Common rheumatic heart diseases and pericardial effusion.
  • Gastrointestinal system: Diagnosis of acute abdominal conditions like intestinal obstruction and perforation; Indications and contraindications for Barium studies; Differential diagnosis of calcification and stones on plain x-ray; Diagnosis of gastric ulcer / duodenal ulcer / cancer stomach / oesophageal cancer on Barium studies.
  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology: Radiation hazards to a pregnant woman and child; ideal time to take x-rays during pregnancy and the number of views to be taken.
  • Skeletal System: Diagnosis of common fractures, caries spine,   osteomyelitis, nutritional deficiencies like rickets, common bone tumours and diseases of joints.
  • Central Nervous System : Signs of raised intracranial tension on plain x-ray of skull.
  • Excretory System: Identification of renal calculi; Contrast studies.

Skills

    1. Obtain a proper relevant history and perform a humane and thorough clinical examination including internal examinations (per - rectal and per - vaginal) and examinations of all organs / systems in adults.
    2. Arrive at a logical working diagnosis after clinical examination.
    3. Order appropriate investigations keeping in mind their need, relevance and cost effectiveness.
    4. Plan and institute a line of treatment which is need based, cost effective and appropriate for common ailments taking into consideration.
      1. Patient,
      2. Disease,
      3. Socio-economic status,
      4. Institutional / govermental guidelines.
    5. Recognise situations which call for urgent or early treatment at secondary and tertiary centres and make a prompt referral of such patients after giving first aid or emergency treatment.
    6. Assess and manage fluid / electrolyte and acid - base imbalance.
    7. Interpret abnormal biochemical laboratory values of common diseases.
    8. Interpret skiagrams of common diseases.
    9. Identify irrational prescriptions and explain their irrationality.
    10. Interpret serological tests such as VDRL, ASLO, Widal, HIV, Rheumatoid factor, Hepatitis and TORCH infections.
    11. Demonstrate empathy and humane approach towards patients, relatives and attendants.
    12. Demonstrate interpersonal and communication skills befitting a physician in order to discuss the illness and its outcome with patient and family.
    13. Write a complete case record with all necessary details.
    14. Write a proper discharge summary with all relevant information.
    15. Write a proper referral note to secondary or tertiary centres or to other physicians with all necessary details.
    16. Assess the need for and issue proper medical certificates to patients for various purposes.
    17. 17.Adopt universal precautions for self protection against HIV and hepatitis and counsel patients.
    18. Perform skin sensitivity tests for drugs and serum.
    19. Record and interpret an ECG and be able to identify common abnormalities like myocardial infarction and arrhythmias.
    20. Start i.v. line and infusion.
    21. Do venous cutdown.
    22. Give intradermal / SC / IM / IV injections.
    23. Insert and manage a C.V.P. line.
    24. Conduct CPR (Cardiopulmonary resuscitation ) and first aid in newborns, children and adults including endotracheal intubation.
    25. Pass a nasogastric tube.
    26. Pass a stomach tube and do stomach wash.
    27. Administer ememas.
    28. Do lumbar puncture.
    29. Do pleural / Peritoneal tap.
    30. Aspirate liver abscess.
    31. Cartheterise bladder in both males and females.
    32. Relieve tension pneumothorax by inserting a needle.
    33. Administer O2 by mask, catheter and O2 tent and be able to handle O2 cylinder.
    34. Insert flatus tube.
    35. Provide first aid to patients with peripheral vascular failure and shock.
    36. Manage acute anaphylactic shock.
    37. Manage diarrhoeas / dysenteries; Assess dehydration; prepare and administer oral rehydration therapy (ORT).
    38. Manage emergencies of downing.
    39. Manage common poisoning.
    40. Manage acute pulmonary oedema and left ventricular failure.
    41. Manage acute severe bronchial asthma.
    42. Do emergency management of epilepsy and status epilepticus.
    43. Do emergency management of comatose patients regarding airway, positioning, prevention of aspiration and injuries.
    44. Manage hyperpyrexia.
    45. Perform skin scrapings and do a KOH preparation for fungus infections.
    46. Prepare slit skin and nasal smear for lepra bacilli.
    47. Do staining for STD Cases.
    48. Do psychiatric evaluation and recognise common psychiatric illnesses.
    49. Use of questionnaires in psychology.
    50. Use of intelligence tests.

Teaching & Learning methods

Lectures, Small group discussions, Seminars, Algorithms, Problem Based Learning, Videography, Integrated teachings and e-modules.

About Paediatrics

Deals with child health in general and exclusively deals with diseases affecting children and adolescence.

Objectives
The objectives of training the undergraduate students in pediatrics is to ensure that at the end of the training he / she will be able to:

  1. Diagnosis and appropriately treat common pediatric and neonatal illness.
  2. Identify pediatric and neonatal illnesses and problems that require secondary and tertiary care and refer them appropriately.
  3. Advise and interpret relevant investigations.
  4. Counsel and guide patient's parents and relatives regarding the illness, the appropriate care, the possible complications and the prognosis.
  5. Provide emergency cardiopulmonary resuscitation to new borns and older children.

Diagnose and effectively treat acute pediatric and neonatal emergencies. Discharge medico-legal and ethical responsibilities. Perform routine investigative and therapeutic procedures. Motivate parents to consent for a diagnosis autopsy.

Course Contents
I. VITAL STATISTICS

  1. Introduction to pediatrics with special reference to age related disorders.
  2. Definition of mortality rates and ratios: infant, perinatal, maternal and neonatal.
  3. Causes and prevention of infant, perinatal and neonatal mortality.
  4. National programmes on maternal and child health.

II. GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

  1. Anthropometric and development assessment, normal and abnormal growth and development patterns, interpretation of growth curves and road to health chart.
  2. Psychological and behavioural problems. Approach to a child with growth retardation and short stature.

III. NUTRITION
Normal requirements of protein, carbohydrate, fat, mineral, vitamins and trace elements for newborns, children, pregnant and lactating mothers.
Exclusive breast feeding, advantages of breast feeding, infant feeding, weaning diets, planning of preterm nutrition, therapeutic diet chart.
Recognition and treatment of nutritional deficiency disorders.
Protein energy malnutrion : classification, causes, management including that of complications.
National Nutritional and other child health and welfare programmes.
Management of problems related to lactation failure.
Hyper-vitaminosis.

IV. IMMUNISATION

  1. National Immunisation programmes. Vaccines and vaccine - preventable diseases.
  2. Principles of immunisation. Vaccine preservation and cold chain.
  3. Indications, contra-indications, adverse reaction and complications.
  4. Investigations and reporting of vaccine preventable diseases.
  5. Other newer vaccines -Haemophilus, Pneumococcal, hepatitis, meningococcal, mumps, rubella.

V. INFECTIOUS DISEAES
Natural history, clinical course, signs, symptoms, investigations, management and prevention of common bacterial, viral, parasitic and fungal infections with special reference to vaccine preventable disease, tuberculosis, mumps, rubella, typhoid, chicken pox and other common childhood examthematous diseases, and parasitic infestations like Giardiasis, Malaria, Kala azar, Filariasis and Intestinal Helminthiasis.

VI. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

  1. Clinical diagnosis, investigations and treatment of acute CNS infections: Meningitis including tuberculosis, encephalitis, seizure disorders, febrile convulsions, Rheumatic Chorea.
  2. Cerebral palsy, mental retardation, hydrocephalus.

VII. GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM
Clinical diagnosis, relevant investigations and management of:

  1. Gastro-oesophageal reflux, GI bleeding, short gut syndrome, acute and chronic diarrhoea, complications of gastroenteritis.
  2. Common hepatic disorders : Hepatitis, Indian Childhood Cirrhosis, Obstructive Jaundice, Portal Hypertension.
  3. Abdominal tuberculosis, acute abdomen including surgical causes paralytic ileus, chronic constipation and rectal bleeding.
  4. Budd - Chiari syndrome, Metabolic disorders like Wilson's disease.

VIII. GENITOURINARY SYSTEM

  1. Clinical   features,   investigations,   complications   and   management   of  acute glomerulonephritis;   nephrotic syndrome;   urinary tract  infection - acute and recurrent.
  2. Acute and chronic renal failure.

IX. CARDIO VASCULAR SYSTEM

  1. Clinical features, diagnosis,  investigation, prevention and treatment of acute rheumatic fever, rheumatic heart disease and complications.
  2. Recognition   of   congenital   acyanotic   and   cyanotic   heart   diseases   and management of cyanotic spells.
  3. Prevention, recognition and treatment of bacterial endocarditis.
  4. Diagnosis and management of congestive cardiac failure.
  5. Clinical features, diagnosis, prevention and treatment of pericardial effusion and myocarditis.

X. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

  1. Epidemiology,   clinical   features,   investigation   and   management   of   acute respiratory infections of upper and lower tract.
  2. Diagnosis and management of acute bronchial asthma,  status asthmaticus, chronic suppurative lung diseases.
  3. Diagnosis and appropriate management of foreign body aspiration.

XI. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

  1. Clinical recognition, causes, laboratory diagnosis, prevention and management of Hypothyroidism (cretinism).
  2. Juvenile diabetes mellitus.

XII. HAEMATOLOGICAL SYSTEM

  1. Recognition   of   clinical   features,   diagnosis,   laboratory   investigations   and management of Nutritional and Haemolytic Anaemias.
  2. Diagnosis and basic investigations of bleeding and coagulation disorders in newborn and older children, Leukaemia and Lymphomas.

XIII. NEONATOLOGY
Foetal physiology of normal pregnancy. Identification of antenatal,  intrapartum and immediate postnatal risk factors.

Definition,   Identification   and   classification   of   high   risk   neonate,   Neonatal resuscitaion, Gestational age assessment and Care of the normal newborn.

Management of neonatal problems : Transient metabolic disorders, Infections, Minor developmental defects, Infants of diabetic mothers, Haemorrhagic Disease of Newborn, Respiratory distress, Feeding difficulties, Birth injuries, Anaemia and Jaundice.

Management of meconium aspiration sysdrome.

Care of the preterm and low birth weight infant : temperature maintenance, feeding, prevention of complications, appropriate method of transfer to tertiary centre.

Identification and referral of neonates with congenital malformations like cleft lip, cleft    palate,    tracheo-oesphagal    fistula,    diaphragmatic    hernia,    anorectal anomalies.

XIV. GENETIC DISORDERS

  1. Terminologies, Down's Syndrome.
  2. Genetic counselling.

 XV. EMERGENCY PEDIATRICS
Clinical features, aetiology, laboratory diagnosis, prevention and management of : Status asthmaticus, Status epilepticus, Acute pulmonary oedema, Hypertensive emergencies, Peripheral circulatory failure due to dehydration and haemorrhage, Cardiac failure, Cyanotic spells, Scorpion and snake envenomation, and common poisoning like kerosine, datura, insecticide, etc.

Miscellaneous Disorders

  1. Common childhood symptoms that cause undue parental anxiety but are of no serious  importance:  recurrent common cold,  stubbornness,  temper tantrum, refusal to eat.
  2. Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Perinatal,   neonatal   and   pediatric   HIV   infection   and   AIDS   on   childhood immunisation.

Skills
Obtain a proper relevant history and perform a humane and thorough clinical examination of all organs / systems in children including neonates.

  • Arrive at a logical working diagnosis after clinical examination.
  • Order appropriate investigations keeping in mind their need, relevance and cost effectiveness.
  • Plan and institute a line of treatment which is need based, cost effective and appropriate for common ailments taking into consideration :
  1. Patient,
  2. Disease,
  3. Socio-economic status,
  4. Institutional / governmental guidelines.
  • Recognise situations which call for urgent or early treatment at secondary and tertiary centres and make a prompt referral of such patients after giving first aid or emergency treatment.
  • Demonstrate empathy and humane approach towards patients, relatives and attendants.
  • Develop a proper attitude towards patients, colleagues and other staff.
  • Maintain an ethical behaviour in all aspects of medical practice.
  • Monitor growth and development of children and differentiate normal from abnormal.
  • Assess and manage fluid / electrolyte and acid-base imbalance.
  • Manage diarrhoeas / dysenteries : Assess dehydration; prepare and administer oral rehydration therapy (ORT).
  • Detect and institute corrective measures for nutritional deficiency.
  • Write a complete case record with all necessary details.
  • Write a proper discharge summary with all relevant information.
  • Write a proper referral note to secondary or tertiary centres or to other physicians with all necessary details.
  • Organise antenatal, postnatal, well-baby and other clinics.
  • Motivate colleagues, community and patients to actively participate in national health programmes.
  • Organise and give training in first aid.
  • Adopt universal precautions for self protection against HIV and hepatitis and counsel patients.
  • Maintain cold chain for vaccines.
  • Perform and read Mantoux test.
  • Start i.v. line and infusion in children and neonates.
  • Do venous cutdown.
  • Give intradermal / SC / IM / IV injection.
  • Insert and manage a C.V.P. line.
  • Conduct CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation ) and first aid in newborns/children includign endotracheal intubation.
  • Pass a nasogastric tube.
  • Manage hyperpyrexia.

Teaching & Learning methods

  1. Lectures,
  2. Small group discussions,
  3. Seminars,
  4. Tutorials,
  5. Quiz,
  6. Debates,
  7. Algorithms,
  8. Problem Based Learning,
  9. Videography,
  10. Integrated teachings and
  11. e-modules.
  • One week modular teaching is recommended for IMNCI.

PROPOSED TEXT BOOKS FOR PEDIATRICS

  • Ghai Textbook of Pediatrics, CBS Publishers
  • Meharban Singh : Clinical Pediatrics
  • Clinical Methods Hutchisons
  • Nelson : Textbook of Pediatrics
  • IAP textbook of Pediatrics
  • Suraj Gupte's Textbook of Pediatrics
  • Meharban Singh Pediatric Emergencies

About Psychiatry

Deals with mental health of individuals and management of such patients.

About Radiology

A branch of health science dealing with diagnositc modalities of x-ray, ultrasound, CT scan, MRI. It also deals with radio therapeutic measures.

Objectives
At the end of the training in Radiotherapy the student should be able to:

  • Exhibit awareness of the principles of radiotherapy, the radio-responsiveness of various tumour and management of common cancers like cervical, breast and oral cancers.
  • Refer for further consultation at appropriate time without delay. State general complications of irradiation and their Management. List common chemotherapeutic drugs for cancer and their toxicity.
  • Implement health education programmes regarding prevention and early diagnosis of tobacco related cancers, cervical cancers and breast cancers.
  • Know the general outlines of use of radio-isotopes in diagnosis and therapy.

Course Contents
1. Physical principles of radiotherapy. 2. Principles of cancer chemotherapy 3. Prevention of cancer 4. Early diagnosis of cancer 5. Principles of nuclear medicine. 6. Radio-responsiveness of various tumours. 7. Common radiation reactions and management. 8. Radiotherapy in some of the commonly seen cancers. 9. Chemotherapy in certain cancers like childhood tumours, leukemia and lymphomas. 10. Radio-isotopes in diagnosis and therapy.

About Chest & T.B

About Skin & S.T.D

About Anaesthesiology

Objectives

  • At the end of the training the student should be able to:
  • Perform cardio-pulmonary resuscitation with the available resources and transfer the patient to a bigger hospital for advanced life support.
  • Set up intravenous infusion.
  • Clear and maintain airway in an unconscious patient.
  • Administer oxygen correctly.
  • Perform simple nerve block.
  • Exhibit awareness of the principles of administration of general and local anaesthetics.

Course Contents

    • Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) -basic and advanced, including use of simple ventilators.
    • Anatomy of upper airway; sites of respiratory obstruction and management of airway in an unconscious patient.
    • Various methods of oxygen therapy and its indications.
    • The pharmacology of local anaesthetics, their use and how to perform simple nerve blocks like,
  • Infiltration anaesthesia
  • Digital block
  • Ankle block
  • Pudendal and paracervical blocks
  • Management of complication of regional anaesthesia.
  • The principles of administration of general anaesthetics.

Skills

  • Start I.V line and infusion in adults, children and neonates.
  • Do venous cutdown.
  • Insert and manage a C.V.P. line.
  • Conduct CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) and first aid in newborns, children and adults including endotracheal intubation.
  • Do lumbar puncture.
  • Perform nerve blocks like infiltration, digital, pudendal , paracervical and field block.
  • Administer O2 by mask, catheter and O2 tent and be able to handle O2 cylinder.

Teaching & Learning methods

  • Outline of   Orthopaedics, 13th edition by John Crawford Adams , Published by David L Hamblen, Elsevier , Mosby , Saunders.
  • Apleys system of Orthopaedics and fractures , Butterworth-Heinmann ltd., Oxford.
  • A manual on Clinical surgery, 4 th edition, S. DAS, 13, Old Mayor's Court, Calcutta 5.

TOPICS FOR E-LEARNING

  1. Injuries of shoulder girdle
  2. Injuries of elbow
  3. Open fractures
  4. Spinal injuries
  5. Complications of fractures
  6. Classification and management of bone tumorus
  7. Osteoporosis
  8. Minimally invasive surgery in orthopaedics
  9. Joint replacement surgery
  10. Surgical procedures for fracture management

About Obstetrics & Gynaecology

A branch of medicine that deals with the diseases and hygiene and health of women, reproductive physiology, childbirth and care of the mother

Objectives
At the end of the training in Obstetrics and Gynaecology the M.B.B.S. student should be able to :

  1. Appreciate the socio-culturea, economic and demographic factors that influence the practice of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
  2. Appreciate the principles of reproductive anatomy and physiology.
  3. Understand the preconception, antenatal, intranatal and postnatal factors including drugs that affect the mother and foetus.
  4. Recognise the changes and adaptation that occur in the mother during pregnancy, labour and puerperium.
  5. Impart antenatal care, detect deviations from normal pregnancy and refer risk cases appropriately.
  6. Manage normal labour, recognise the factors that may lead to complications and refer such cases appropriately.
  7. Institute primary treatment in Obstetrics and Gynaecological emergencies.
  8. Resuscitate and take adequate care of the newborn.
  9. Assist couples with infertility and those requiring contraception.
  10. Know the aetiopathology and management of menstrual abnormalities.
  11. Know about the benign and malignant tumors of the genital tract and appreciate the need for screening and prevention.
  12. Recognise the importance of infections and other diseases of the genital tract and give appropriate treatment.
  13. Know about the displacements of genital tract and injuries.
  14. Understand the implications of medicolegal and ethical issues concerning the speciality.
  15. Acquire communication, decision making and managerial skills.
  16. Acquire skills to perform Obstetrical and Gynaecological examinations and certain minor investigations and therapeutic operative procedures.

Course Contents
A. OBSTETRICS
I. BROAD PERSPECTIVES
Vital statistics, birth rate, maternal mortality, perinatal and neonatal mortality, live birth, still birth, abortion, period of viability including definitions of all the above.

II. ANATOMY OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT
Basic Anatomy : Relationship to other pelvic organs. Applied Anatomy as related to Obstetric and Gynaecological surgery.

III. PHYSIOLOGY OF CONCEPTION

  1. Gametogenesis.
  2. Ovulation, menstruation, fertilisation and implantation.

IV. DEVELOPMENT OF FOETUS AND PLACENTA

  1. Basic embryology, factors influencing foetal growth and development; anatomy of placenta.
  2. Teratogenesis, placental barrier.

V. DIAGNOSIS OF PREGNANCY

  1. Clinical features ; differential diagnosis; principles underlying the pregnancy test.
  2. Immunological tests and their interpretation; ultrasonogram.

VI. MATERNAL CHANGES IN PREGNANCY

  1. Genital tract, cardiovascular system and haematology.
  2. Respiratory and gastrointestinal system.

VII. ANTENATAL CARE

  1. Objectives of antenatal care ; assessment of period of gestation; detect abnormality with the help of gravidogram; clinical monitoring of maternal and foetal well-being; detect normal foetal pelvic relation (obstetrical palpation); advise reagainst tetanus; basic investigations.
  2. Foetal well-being : biophysical monitoring ; pelvic assessment.

VIII. COMPLICATIONS OF EARLY PREGNANCY

  1. Abortions : Definition, Types, Causes; Management of incomplete, inevitable abortion.
  2. Ectopic Pregnancy : Clinical features; differential diagnosis of acute abdomen; principles of surgical management; Causes and conservative management of ectopic pregnancy/
  3. Hyperemesis Gravidarum : Aetiopathology; Impact on maternal and foetal health; principles of management.
  4. Gestational Trophoblastic Tumours : Clinical features; differential diagnosis; principles of management; follow up; Laboratory investigations and ultrasonography.

IX. ANTEPARTUM HAEMORRHAGE

  1. Classification ; clinical features ; differential diagnosis ; principles of management.
  2. Aetiopathology; ultrasonography; complications and management.

X. ABNORMAL PRESENTATIONS AND CONTRACTED PELVIS

  1. Causes, salient features ; principles of management of occipito-posterior, face and brow presentation;
  2. Obstructed labor: definition, clinical features, prevention; mechanism of breech delivery.

XI. MULTIPLE PREGNANCIES

  1. Clinical features; diagnosis and compliations ; principles of management; investigations.
  2. Causes : management.

XII. PREGNANCY - INDUCED HYPERTENSION

  1. Definition ; early detection; investigations; principles of management of pregnancy - induced hypertension and eclampsia.
  2. Aetiopathology; differential diagnosis of convulsions in pregnancy; complications of eclampsia.

XIII. ANAEMIA IN PREGNANCY

  1. Aetiology ; classification; diagnosis; investigations; adverse effect on the mother and foetus; management during pregnancy and labour.

XIV. OTHER MEDICAL DISORDERS LIKE
HEART DISEASE / DIABETES MILLITUS AND
URINARY TRACT INFECTION

  1. Clinical features; early detection; effect of pregnancy on the disease and impact of the disease on pregnancy.
  2. Complications of the diseases.

XV. NORMAL LABOUR

  1. Physiology ; mechanism in occipito - anterior presentation ;
  2. Monitoring - Partogram; conduct of labour; pain relief.

XVI. MANAGEMENT OF THIRD STAGE OF LABOUR

  1. Complications: Predisposing factors; prevention; management of atonic post partum haemorrhage.
  2. Management of injuries to the lower genital tract.

XVII. UTERINE DYSFUNCTION

  1. Classification; recognition of uterine dysfunction; principles of induction and acceleration of labour.

XVIII. FOETAL DISTRESS AND FOETAL DEATH

  1. Clinical features; causes; diagnosis; principles of management; prevention.

XIX. HAEMOLYTIC DISEASE INCLUDING Rh ISO IMMUNISATION

  1. Mechanism; Prophylaxis; foetal complications.

XX. PUERPERIUM

  1. Physiology; clinical features; complications: recognition and principles of management; prevention of puerperal sepsis.

XXI. BREAST FEEDING

  1. Physiology of lactation; care of breast; counselling regarding breast feeding; mastitis and breast abscess.

XXII. CARE OF NEW BORN

  1. Assessment of maturity; detect asphyxia; principles of resuscitation; common problems.

XXIII. MEDICAL TERMINATION OF PREGNANCY

    1. Legal aspects; indications; methods; complicaitons.
    2. Management of complications.

XXIV. CONTRACEPTION

  1. Various methods and devices; selection of patients; counselling of couples; side effects; failures and complications.

XXV. OPERATIVE OBSTETRICS

  1. Indications, technique and complications for episiotomy, vacuum extraction; low forceps, instrumental evacuation; menstrual regulation.
  2. Indications and steps of operation : Caesarean section; assisted breech delivery; external cephalic version; cervical cerclage; intra-amniotic instillation.

XXVI. POST-CAESAREAN PREGNANCY

  1. Risks ; identification of scar dehiscence.

B. GYNAECOLOGY

I. PHYSIOLOGICAL VAGINAL DISCHARGE

  1. Clinical characteristics.

II. PATHOLOGICAL VAGINAL DISCHARGE

  1. Aetiology; characteristics; clinical recognition; investigation; treatment of common causes; genital hygiene.

III. ABNORMAL & EXCESSIVE MENSTRUAL BLEEDING

  1. Definitions : classification of causes ; clinical features; principles of investigation; diagnosis and management.

IV. AMENORRHOES

  1. Causes; principles of management.

V. DYSFUNCTIONAL UTERINE BLEEDING

  1. Aetiopathology ; classification; clinical aspects and diagnosis; principles of investigation and management.
  2. Hormone therapy; management options.

VI. FERTILITY AND INFERTILITY

  1. Causes in male and female; Physical examination of both female and male partmers; essential investigations and interpretation.
  2. Management options; Principles of Medically Assisted Reproductive Technology (MART).

VII. ENDOMETRIOSIS & ALLIED STATES

  1. Aetiopathology; clinical features; principles of investigation and management.
  2. Implications on health and fertility.

VIII. GENITAL INJURIES & FISTULAE

    1. Causes; prevention; clinical features; principles of management.

IX. GENITAL INFECTIONS

  1. STD, AIDS and Pelvic Tuberculosis.
  2. Infections affecting individual organs.
  3. Aetiology; Pathology; clinical features; differential diagnosis; principles of basic investigation; medical therapy.
  4. Long term implications; surgical management.

X. DISPLACEMENTS OF UTERUS

  1. Genital Prolapse : Aetiology; clinical features; differential diagnosis; principles of management; preventive aspects.

XI. BENIGN TUMOURS OF PELVIC ORGANS

  1. Ovarian and Uterine tumours: Types; Aetiology; clinical features; differential diagnosis; principles of management.

XII. MALIGNANCY OF GENITAL TRACT

  1. Cancer cervix uteri: Aetiopathology; clinical features; screening procedures; investigations; diagnosis; principles of management.
  2. Epidemiological aspects; management options.

XIII. OPERATIVE GYNAECOLOGY

  1. Indications, technique and complications: Dilation and Curettage (D & C); Fractional curettage; cervical biopsy.
  2. Indications and steps of abdominal hysterectomy; surgery for ovarian tumours; vaginal surgery for utero-vaginal prolapse.

Laparoscopy; colposcopy; hysteroscopy; management of postoperative complications

Skills

  • Obtained a proper relevant history and perform a humane and thorough clinical examination including internal examinations (per-rectal and per-vaginal) in adults and children.
  • Arrive at a logical working diagnosis after examination.
  • Order appropriate investigations keeping in mind their need, relevance and cost effectiveness.
  • Plan and institute a line of treatment which is need based, cost effective and appropriate for common ailments taking into consideration:
  1. Patient
  2. Disease
  3. Socio-economic status
  4. Institutional / governmental guidelines.
  • Recognise situations which call for urgent or early treatment at secondary and tertiary centres and make a prompt referral of such patients after giving first aid or emergency treatment.
  • Demonstrate interpersonal and communications skills befitting a physician in order to discuss the illness and its out-come with patient and family.
  • Determine gestational age.
  • Maintain an ethical behaviour in all aspects of medical practice.
  • Obtain informed consent for any examinatin/procedure.
  • Motivate colleagues, community and patients to participate actively in national health programmes.
  • Write a complete case record with all necessary details.
  • Write a proper discharge summary with all relevant information.
  • Write a proper referral note to secondary or tertiary centres or to other physicians with all necessary details.
  • Assess the need for and issue proper medical certificates to patients for various purposes.
  • Organise antenatal, postnatal, well-baby and other clinics.
  • Plan and manage health camps such as family welfare camp.
  • Adopt universal precautions for self protection against HIV and hepatitis and counsel patients.
  • Do and examine a wet film of vaginal smear for Trichomonas and fungus.
  • Take a pap smear.
  • Take punch biopsy or cervix.
  • Conduct normal vaginal delivery.
  • Do artificial rupture of membranes.
  • Perform and suture episiotomies.
  • Apply outlet forceps.
  • Do post partum tubectomy.
  • Perform MTP in the first trimester and be able to do evacuation in incomplete abortion.
  • Insert and remove IUCD.
  • Be able to diagnose and provide emergency management of antepartum and postpartum haemorrhage.

Teaching & Learning methods

  1. Lectures,
  2. Small group discussions,
  3. Seminars,
  4. Case studies/Simulations,
  5. Role play,
  6. Problem Based Learning,
  7. Videography,
  8. Integrated teachings and e-modules.

About General Surgery

Concerned with diseases that can be managed by surgical means and the various types and methods of surgical procedures.

Objectives
At the end of the training the undergraduate student should be able to :
a.   Diagnose and appropriately treat common surgical ailments;

  1. Identify situations calling for urgent or early surgical intervention and refer at the optimum time to the appropriate centres;
  2. Requisition and interpret basic relevant investigations;
  3. Provide adequate pre and post - operative and follow-up care of surgical patients;
  4. Counsel and guide patients and relatives regarding need,  implications and problems of surgery in the individual patient;
  5. Develop adequate and right attitude in dealing with surgical problems of patients;
  6. Provide emergency resuscitative measures in acute surgical situations including trauma.
  7. Organise and conduct relief measures in situations of mass casualities.
  8. Effectively participate in the National Health   Programme especially the Family Welfare Programme.
  9. ischarge effectively medico-legal and ethical responsible ties, k.   Perform simple routine surgical procedures

Course Contents
I. TRAUMA
      •   General principles in diagnosis, first aid and treatment methods of closed fractures and open fractures, open reduction including principles of internal fixation and external fixation, their complications, Preservation of amputated parts before transfer.
      •   General principles of diagnosis and management of non-unions and delayed unions.

II. DIAGNOSIS, FIRST AID AND REFERRAL OF

  1. Fracture clavicle.
  2. Anterior dislocation of shoulder.
  3. Fracture proximal end, shaft, supracondylar, and internal condylar humerus.
  4. Posterior dislocatin of elbow.
  5. Fracture shaft of radius and ulna.
  6. Fracture of distal radius.
  7. Traumatic dislocation of hip.
  8. Fracture femur neck, trochanter and shaft.
  9. Fracture patella.
  10. Fracture shaft tibia and fibula.
  11. Haemarthrosis, traumatic synovitis.
  12. Injury to muscles and ligaments (shoulder arc syndrome, tennis elbow, ankle sprain).
  13. General principles of management of hand injuries.
  14. Peripheral nerve injuries.
  15. Spinal injuries.
  16. Fracture of olecranon.
  17. Monteggia fracture dislocation.
  18. Polytrauma.
  19. Complications   of  fracture:   Fat   embolism,   Ischaemic   contracture,   myositis ossificans, osteodystrophy.

III. INFECTIONS OF BONES AND JOINTS Diagnosis and Principles of Management

  1. Osteomyelitis : pyogenic, tubercular, fungal (Madurafoot), syphilitic and parasitic infection of bone.
  2. Arthritis : septic and tubercular.
  3. Tuberculosis of the spine.
  4. Leprosy - principles of corrective surgery.

IV. TUMOURS Diagnosis and Principles of Management

  1. Benign lesions : Multiple  exostosis,  Enchondroma,  Osteoid osteoma, Simple bone cyst. Osteochondroma.
  2. Malignant   lesions   :   Osteosarcoma,   Ewing's   sarcoma,   Giant   cell   tumor, Chondrosarcoma and Secondary deposits.

V. DEGENERATIVE DISEASES Diagnosis and Principles of Management

  1. Osteoarthritis.
  2. Spondylosis.
  3. Degenerative disc diseases.

VI. CONGENITAL ANOMALIES Diagnosis and Principles of Management

  1. Congenital dislocation hip.
  2. Congenital talipes equinovarus.
  3. Pes Planus.

VII. BONE DYSPLASIA Diagnosis and Principles of Management

  1. Osteogenesis imperfecta.
  2. Achondroplasia.

VIII. NEURO-MUSCULAR DISORDERS Diagnosis and Principles of Management

  1. Post-polio residual Paralysis.
  2. Cerebral palsy.

IX. OSTEOCHONDROSES Diagnosis and Principles of Management

  1. Perthe's disease

X. DEFORMITIES

  1. Scoliosis - diagnosis and referral.
  2. GenuVarum and Valgum -diagnosis.

XI. PREVENTIVE ORTHOPAEDICS

XII. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF PHYSIOTHERAPYOCCUPATIONAL THERAPY AND ORTHOTICS / PROSTHETICS
      •  Physiatric evaluation of common neurological diseases.
      •  Physiatric evaluation of common orthopaedic conditions.
      •  Principles of Exercise therapy, Electrotherapy and Occupational therapy.
      •  Principles of Orthotics and Prosthetics. Principles of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation.

Skills
Obtain a proper relevant history and perform a humane and thorough clinical examination including internal examinations (per-rectal and per-vaginal) and examinations of all organs / systems in adults and children.

  • Arrive at a logical working diagnosis after clinical examination.
  • Order appropriate investigations keeping in mind their relevance (need based ) and cost effectiveness.
  • Plan and institute a line of treatment which is need based, cost effective and appropriate for common ailments taking into considerationPatient;
  1. Disease;
  2. Socio-economic status;
  3. Institutional / governmental guidelines.
  • Recognise situations which call for urgent or early treatment at secondary and tertiary centres and make a prompt referral of such patients after giving first aid or emergency treatment.
  • Demonstrate empathy and humane approach towards patients, relatives and attendants.
  • Develop a proper attitude towards patients, colleagues and other staff.
  • Demonstrate interpersonal and communication skills befitting a surgeon in order to discuss the illness and its out-come with patient and family.
  • Establish rapport and talk to patients, relatives and community regarding all aspects of medical care and disease.
  • Write a complete case record with all necessary details.
  • Write a proper discharge summary with all relevant information.
  • Write a proper referral note to secondary or tertiary centres or to other surgeons with all necessary details.
  • Assess the need for and issue proper medical certificates to patients for various purposes.
  • Maintain an ethical behaviour in all aspects of medical practice.
  • Appreciate patients' right to privacy.
  • Obtain informed consent for any examination / procedure.
  • Be able to do surface marking of common superficial arteries, veins, nerves and viscera.
  • Assess and manage fluid / electrolyte and acid base imbalance.
  • Adopt universal precautions for self protection against HIV and hepatitis and counsel patients.
  • Start i.v. line and infusion in adults, children and neonates.
  • Do venous cutdown.
  • Give intradermal / SC / IM / IV injection.
  • Insert and manage a C.V.P. line.
  • Conduct CPR (Cardiopulmonary resuscitation) and first aid in newborns, children and adults including endotracheal intubation.
  • Pass a nasogastric tube.
  • Pass a stomach tube and do stomach wash.
  • Perform vasectomy.
  • Perform circumcision,
  • Perform reduction of paraphimosis.
  • Do Proctoscopy.
  • Do injection and banding of piles.
  • Incise and drain superficial abscesses; do dressing.
  • Manage superficial wounds and do suturing of superficial wounds & wound toilet.
  • Remove small cutaneous / subcjtaneous swellings.
  • Control external haemorrhage.
  • Catheterise bladder in both males and females.
  • Perform nerve blocks like   nfiltration, digital, pudendal, paracervical and field block.
  • Relieve tension pneumothorax by inserting a needle.
  • Insert flatus tube.
  • Provide first aid to patients with peripheral vascular failure and shock.
  • Assess degree of burns and administer emergency management.

Teaching & Learning methods
Structured interactive sessions Small group discussions Self learning tools like

  1. Assignments
  2. Problem based learning
  3. Written case scenarios

Simulated patient management problems, in addition to routine classroom and bedside teaching

About Orthopaedics

Deals with diseases, manifestations and treatment of muscular skeletal diseases.

Objectives

At the end of the training the student should be able to :
Describe   the   aetiology,   pathophysiology,   principles   of   diagnosis   and management of common orthopaedic problems including emergencies

Course Contents

I. TRAUMA
      •   General principles in diagnosis, first aid and treatment methods of closed fractures and open fractures, open reduction including principles of            internal fixation and external fixation, their complications, Preservation of amputated parts before transfer.
      •   General principles of diagnosis and management of non-unions and delayed unions.

 

II. DIAGNOSIS, FIRST AID AND REFERRAL OF

  1. Fracture clavicle.
  2. Anterior dislocation of shoulder.
  3. Fracture proximal end, shaft, supracondylar, and internal condylar humerus.
  4. Posterior dislocatin of elbow.
  5. Fracture shaft of radius and ulna.
  6. Fracture of distal radius.
  7. Traumatic dislocation of hip.
  8. Fracture femur neck, trochanter and shaft.
  9. Fracture patella.
  10. Fracture shaft tibia and fibula.
  11. Haemarthrosis, traumatic synovitis.
  12. Injury to muscles and ligaments (shoulder arc syndrome, tennis elbow, ankle sprain).
  13. General principles of management of hand injuries.
  14. Peripheral nerve injuries.
  15. Spinal injuries.
  16. Fracture of olecranon.
  17. Monteggia fracture dislocation.
  18. Polytrauma.
  19. Complications   of  fracture:   Fat   embolism,   Ischaemic   contracture,   myositis ossificans, osteodystrophy.

III. INFECTIONS OF BONES AND JOINTS Diagnosis and Principles of Management

  1. Osteomyelitis : pyogenic, tubercular, fungal (Madurafoot), syphilitic and parasitic infection of bone.
  2. Arthritis : septic and tubercular.
  3. Tuberculosis of the spine.
  4. Leprosy - principles of corrective surgery.

IV. TUMOURS Diagnosis and Principles of Management

  1. Benign lesions : Multiple  exostosis,  Enchondroma,  Osteoid osteoma, Simple bone cyst. Osteochondroma.
  2. Malignant   lesions   :   Osteosarcoma,   Ewing's   sarcoma,   Giant   cell   tumor, Chondrosarcoma and Secondary deposits.

V. DEGENERATIVE DISEASES Diagnosis and Principles of Management

  1. Osteoarthritis.
  2. Spondylosis.
  3. Degenerative disc diseases.

VI. CONGENITAL ANOMALIES Diagnosis and Principles of Management

  1. Congenital dislocation hip.
  2. Congenital talipes equinovarus.
  3. Pes Planus.

VII. BONE DYSPLASIA Diagnosis and Principles of Management

  1. Osteogenesis imperfecta.
  2. Achondroplasia.

VIII. NEURO-MUSCULAR DISORDERS Diagnosis and Principles of Management

  1. Post-polio residual Paralysis.
  2. Cerebral palsy.

IX. OSTEOCHONDROSES Diagnosis and Principles of Management

  1. Perthe's disease

X. DEFORMITIES

  1. Scoliosis - diagnosis and referral.
  2. GenuVarum and Valgum -diagnosis.

XI. PREVENTIVE ORTHOPAEDICS

XII. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF PHYSIOTHERAPYOCCUPATIONAL THERAPY AND ORTHOTICS / PROSTHETICS
      •  Physiatric evaluation of common neurological diseases.
      •  Physiatric evaluation of common orthopaedic conditions.
      •  Principles of Exercise therapy, Electrotherapy and Occupational therapy.
      •  Principles of Orthotics and Prosthetics. Principles of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation.

Skills

  • Obtain a proper relevent history, and perform a humane and thorough clinical examination in adults and children including neonates.
  • Arrive at a logical working diagnosis afte examination '
  • Plan and institute a line of treatment which is need based, cost effective and appropriate for common ailments.
  • Recognise situations which call for urgent or early treatment at secondary and tertiary centres and make a prompt referral of such patients after giving first aid or emergency treatment.
  • Be able to do surface marking of common superficial arteries, veins, nerves and viscera.
  • Interpret skiagrams of common fractures and dislocations.
  • Apply skin traction.
  • Apply figure of 8 bandage for fracture clavicle.
  • Apply POP slabs/casts and splints.
  • Transport safely victims of accidents including those with spinal injury.
  • Reduce Colle's fracture.
  • Reduce shoulder dislocation.
  • Reduce tempero-mandibular joint dislocation.
  • Perform nerve blocks like infiltration, digital ,pudendal, paracervical and field block.

About Ophthalmology

Study of diseases of eye and its management by medical and surgical means.

Objectives
The student should able to understand:

  • The epidemiology of various infectious and non-infectious diseases and to understand and manage health problems at the social and Community levels.
  • Identify common problems related to eye and vision and take effective care for prevention of common eye diseases.
  • Patho-physiology of common Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases, investigate and treat them and to recognize preventable causes of deafness.

About E.N.T

About Accident, Emergency & Critical Care Medicine

A New branch of clinical medicine involving the management of critically ill Patients presenting with life threatening problems like Acute Myocardial Infarction, acute stroke, Poly Trauma, Head Injury, Poisoning, Snake & Scorpion bites etc..

TRAUMA CARE
TRAUMATIC DISORDERS

- Principles of care
- Prehospital trauma care
- Triage
- Resucitation and stabilisation
. Hemorrhagic shock
. Neurogenic shock
- Role of emergency physician
- Team response
- Reassessment and monitoring
- Diagonosis
- Treatment
- Consultation
- Diposition
- Injury prevention and control
. Case of injury
- Homocide
- Suicide
- Family violence
- MOtor vehicle crashes
- Falls
- Drowning/near drowning
- Poisoning
- Burns and fire related injuries
- Occupational injuries

 

. Radiological evaluation
- Plain radiography
- Contrast radiography
- CT scan
- Angiography
- MRI
- Ultrasound

. Mechanism of injury
- Blunt
- Penetrating
. Gunshot wounds
. Stab wounds
- Kinematics

. Diagnosis and management by anatomic areas
- Head trauma
. Scalp lacerations/avulsions
. Skull fractures
. Brain concussions, contusions
. Intracranical hematomas
. Brain stem injuries
. Penetrating head trauma
. Cerebra spinal flid leaks

. Spinal cord and peripheral nervous system trauma
. Complete spinal cord injuries
. Incomplete cord injuries
. Cauda equina injuries
. Nerve route injuries
. Brachial and lumbo sacral injuries
. Peripheral nerve injuries

. Injuries of the spine
. Fractures
- Cervical
- Thoracic
- Lumbar
- Sacral/coccygeal

. Dislocations/subluxations
-Unilateral facet
- Bilateral facet

. Ligamentous injuries
. Facial fractures
- Frontal sinus
- Mandibular
- Maxillary
- Nasal
- Orbital
- Nasal
- Dental fractures and avulsions
- Zygomatic

Objectives
At the end of the clinical postings in Emergency Medicine, the medical student should

1. Be able to evaluate each patient as a person in society and not merely as a collection of organ systems.
2. Have developed an interest in and care for all types of patients. Recognise differences between normal and abnormal presentation of the diseases.
3. Be able to discern the hopes and fears of patients which inevitably underlie the symptom complexes and know how to handle these emotions, both in the patient and in others.
4. Possess sound knowledge of common diseases, their clinical manifestations and natural history.
5. Elicit a good clinical history and physical findings, elucidate the clinical problems based on these and discuss the differential diagnosis.
6. Requisition relevant laboratory tests and perform common side lab procedures.
7. Be familiar with common imaging techniques, their advantages, diadvantages and indications; be aware of radiation hazzards and measures to protect thereform.
8. Outline the principles of management of various diseases, including the medical and surgical procedures available.
9. Describe the mode of action of commonly used drugs, their doses, side effects, toxicity, indications, contraindications and drug interactions.
10. Have an open attitude to the newer developments in medicine to keep abreast of new knowledge.
11. Diagnosis and provide competent initial care to medical emergencies. Refer medical problems to secondary and tertiary care at appropriate times. Recognise the problems arising in patients of AIDS.
12. Have an understanding of the art of medicine involving communication with patients, demonstration of empathy, reassurance, patient education and an understanding of the patient's socioeconomic circumstances in relation to management.
13. Learn to be adaptable to new ideas and new situations where resources may be limited.
14. Possess knowledge of an perform certain procedure.
15. Understand the ethical and legal implications of one's medical decisions

Course Contents
SYLLABUS
Prehospital Care

. Emergency Medical Services
. Prehospital Equipment and Adjuncts
. Air medical Transport
. Neonatal and pediatric Transport
. Mass Gatherings

Disater Preparedness
. Diaster Medical Services.
. Bioterrorism Response:Implications for the Emergency Clinician
. Diaster Mangement for Chemical Agents of Mass Destruction
. Blast and Crush Injuries
. Radiation Injuries.

Resuciative Problems
. Sudden Carduic Death
. Basic Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Adults
. Neonatal Resuscitation and Emergencies
. Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
. Resuciation Issues in Pergnancy
. Ethical Issues in Pregnancy
. NOninvasive Airway Mangement
. Tracheal Intubation and Mechanical Ventilation
. Surgical Airway Mangement
. Vascular Access
. Invasive Monitoring, Pacing Techniques, and Automatic and Implantable Defibrillators
. Cerbral Resuscitation
. Newer Resuscitation
. Acid-Base Disorders
. Blood Gases: Pathophysiol;ogy and Interpretation
. Fluid and Electrolyte Problems
. Disturbances of Cardic Rhythm and Conduction
. Pharmacology of Antidysrhythmic and Vasoactive medications

Skills
PROCEDURES / SkILLS

. Airway techniques
- Cricothyrotomy
- Heimleichs maneovre
- Intubation
. Esophageal obturator airway
. Nasotracheal
. Oratracheal
. Rapid sequence
. Fiber optic
- Mechhanical ventilation
- Percutaneous transtracheal ventilation
- Airway adjuncts

. Anaesthesia
- Local
- Regional
- Intravenous anaesthesia
- Regional nerve blocks
- Genral anaesthesia

Teaching & Learning methods
FIRST YEAR

Emergency Room     2 months
Multi disciplinary ICU     2 months
General Medicine     2 months
Paediatrics     2 months
Orthopaedics      2 months
Obstertrics     1 month
Obsttetrics and Gynaecolgy     1 month
Nephrology    1 month

SECOND YEAR
Emergency Room      2 months
Multi disciplinary ICU      2 months
Cardiology ICU     1 Month
Nephrology     1 month
Anesthesiology      1 month
PUlmonary / Neurology    1 month
Radiology / Neuro Surgery      1 month
Genral Surgery     1 month

THIRD YEAR
Emergency Room     3 months
Pediatrics     2 months
Cardiology ICU     2 months
Genral medicine     2 months
orthopedics     2 months

Our Campus

VMKVMC College Location

  • Chinna Seeragapadi, Salem – 636 308, Tamil Nadu, India
  • Phone: 0427 - 3012079
  • Fax: 0427 – 3012078
  • Email: dean.vmkvmc@vmu.edu.in

University Administrative Office

  • Sankari Main Road (NH-47), Ariyanoor, Salem - 636 308 Tamil Nadu, India.
  • Phone: +91 427 3987000
  • Fax: +91 427 2477903
  • Email: vmtrust@vmu.edu.in