Welcome to Physiology Department Page ( Pre-Clinical )
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About Physiology

Study of normal functions of various body organs, experimental physiology, cellular functions and clinical applications. Objectives At the end of Phase-I & II, the student should be able to:
1. Understand normal disposition, inter relationships, functional and structural anatomy of various organs and their development. He should be able to locate structures of the body and mark topography of living anatomy;
2. Understand and describe normal functions of the all organs of the body and their functional interactions.
3. Understand and describe various functional aspects, at the bio molecular level including metabolic pathways and their regulatory mechanisms.
4. Integrate these learnt subjects to practice of clinical medicine

Course Contents

General Physiology
-   Principles of homeostasis
-   Structure of cell membrane
-   Transport mechanisms 
-   Intercellular communications  
-   Fluid compartments of the body.

-   Composition and functions
-   RBC- formation, function and anemia's 
-   WBC- formation, functions and Leukemia's
-   Hemoglobin- synthesis and functions 
-   Blood groups- basis of blood grouping, clinical importance, bloodbanking and      transfusion
-   Haemostasis, anticoagulants

Muscle  and nerve physiology
-   Structure and functions of a neuron and neuralgia
-   Molecular basis of resting membrane and action potential 
-   Transmission of nerve impulse
-   Structure and transmission across neuro-muscular junction
-   Neuro-muscular blocking agents
-   Types and structure of muscle fiber
-   Action potential in different muscle types
-   Molecular basis of muscle contraction
-   Muscular changes during exercise;
-   Properties of xcitable issue.

Renal system
-   Structure and function of nephron
-   Urine formation involving processes of filtration, tubularabsorption, secretion and     concentration
-   Structure and function of a Juxta glomerular apparatus
-   Role of renin-angiotensin system
-   Fluid and electrolyte balance and its regulation
-   Innervations of bladder, micturition, abnormalities of micturition
-   Artificial kidney, dialysis and renal transplantation
Renal Function Test                                                                                    

Digestive system
-   Basic structure of Digestive system 
-   functions of 
-   Salivary secretion
-   Gastric secretion
-   Pancreatic secretion
-   Intestinal secretion
-   Bile 
-   Gastro-intestinal hormones-source, regulation and functions
-   Gastro-intestinal movements
-   Pathophysiology of peptic ulcer, Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, vomitting, diarrhoea, constipation

-   Physiological actions and effect of altered secretion of Pituitary gland, Thyroid gland, Parathyroid gland,
Adrenal gland, Pancreas and hypothalamus
Estimation and assessment of Hormones 

Reproductive system
-   Functions of testis & ovary
-   Spermatogenesis & factors influencing it
-   Menstrual cycle-hormonal, uterine and ovarian changes
-   Physiological changes during pregnancy and lactation 
-   Physiological basis for pubertal changes
-   Physiological effect of sex hormones
-   Contraceptive methods (male and female methods)

Cardiovascular system
-   Properties of cardiac muscle 
-   Conducting system of heart 
-   Haemodynamics of circulatory system
-   Regulation of heart rate and blood pressure and cardiac output 
-   Electrocardiogram-physiological basis and applications.
-   Regional circulation-coronary, cerebral, capillary, foetal   and     pulmonary        circulation
-   Pathophysiology of shock, coronary artery disease, hypertension      
-   Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation
-   Abnormal ECG

Respiratory system
-   Functional anatomy
-   Mechanics of normal respiration
-   Regulation of respiration 
-   Transport of respiratory gases 
-   Lung function test-clinical significance 
-   Principles of artificial respiration, oxygen therapy, acclimatization     and     decompression sickness.
-   Pathophysiology -hypoxia, cyanosis and asphyxia. 

Central nervous system
-   Organization of nervous system  
-   Functions and properties of synapse, reflex, receptors. 
-   Functions of cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebellum and
    limbic system.
-   Structure and function of reticular activating system, autonomic  nervous
-   Mechanism of maintenance of tone, posture and equilibrium-   
    vestibular apparatus
-   Higher functions (Memory, Learning, Speech)    
-   Pathophysiology of Parkinsonism, section of spinal cord. 
-   EEG and Sleep 
-   Pain and referred pain 

Special senses
-   Functional anatomy of eye                                                                
-   Physiology of image formation, colour vision, refractive errors Visual reflexes-
    pupillary and light reflex
-   Effect of lesion for visual pathway 
-   Pathophysiology of blindness 
-   Functional anatomy ear
-   Mechanism of hearing
-   Pathophysiology of deafness
-   Perception of smell and taste sensation 
-   Pathophysiology of altered smell and taste sensation
-   Auditory & visual evoke potential 

Skin and body temperature regulation
    Mechanism of temperature regulation
    Adaptation to altered temperature (heat and cold) 
    Mechanism of fever, cold injuries and heat stroke.

Physiology of sports, exercise, yoga and   meditation,
    Cardio-respiratory and metabolic adjustments
    Physiological effects of yoga and meditation


A medical student, in Physiology, must be able to perform and interpret following skills:
RBC count 
WBC count 
Differential WBC count 
Eosinophil count
Platelet count
Clotting and bleeding time
Blood grouping and cross matching
Interpret peripheral smear - identify
abnormality and anaemia
Calculate various blood indicies

Muscle and nerve physiology
- Properties of nerve and muscle to  bedemonstrated by computer based modules

Reproductive system
Pregnancy test

Cardiovascular system History taking  
Examine peripheral arterial pulse
Record arterial blood pressure using  
Record ECG, identify normal waves,
intervals and pick up abnormalities
Locate the apex beat 
Auscultate the areas of heart, appreciate  heart sound,
Pickup abnormal sounds

Respiratory system
Perform    spirometry    (computer   spirometer, if available) and interpret the recording to appreciate restrictive and obstructive airway diseases Locate the position of trachea and appreciate its deviation in disease Percuss lung fields to appreciate the  change in note in disease Auscultate lung fields appreciate the normal breath sound and pickup adventitious sounds Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation 

Nervous system
Examination of Sensory system (touch,  pain, pressure and temperature)
Examination of motor system (nutrition, tone, power and co-ordination)
Examination of superficial and deep  reflexes. Examination of cranial nerves (sensory and motor division)
Examination of autonomic nervous system 
EEG, EMG and nerve conduction Studies

Special senses
Acuity of vision (near and distant vision)
Colour vision
Field of vision
Tests for hearing
Test f or smell and taste 
Principle of opthalmoscopy

Body temperature and metabolism
Recording body temperature in different location

Teaching & Learning methods

• Structured interactive sessions
• Small group discussion
• Focused group discussion (FGD)
• Practical including demonstrations
• Problem based exercises
• Skill labs
• Video clips
• Written case scenario
• Self learning tools
• Interactive learning
• e-modules


Anatomy | Physiology | Biochemistry


Pre-Clinical | Para-Clinical | Clinical

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